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Abstract

The Technical Paper addresses the issue of freshwater. Sealevel rise is dealt with only insofar as it can lead to impacts on freshwater in coastal areas and beyond. Climate, freshwater, biophysical and socio-economic systems are interconnected in complex ways. Hence, a change in any one of these can induce a change in any other. Freshwater-related issues are critical in determining key regional and sectoral vulnerabilities. Therefore, the relationship between climate change and freshwater resources is of primary concern to human society and also has implications for all living species.

Abstract

Under natural resource ecosystems shared across communities and nations, the distribution among stakeholders of risks and vulnerability to climate change is likely to be uneven on account of the nature of their stakes in the ecosystems, the degree of their dependence and the extent of degradation of the natural resources.

Abstract

The archipelagic state of Antigua & Barbuda is located approximately midway in the Caribbean chain of islands at 17ºN and 62ºW. Geographically, the islands are low-lying with the primary environmental influence being the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Climatic features include relatively high and uniform temperatures throughout the year and steady easterly trade winds. Both islands are among the driest in the eastern Caribbean. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the frequency of hurricane activity and impacts.

Abstract

There is evidence that climate change is already affecting biodiversity and will continue to do so. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment ranks climate change among the main direct drivers affecting ecosystems. Consequences of climate change on the species component of biodiversity include:

•changes in distribution,

•increased extinction rates,

•changes in reproduction timings, and

•changes in length of growing seasons for plants.

Abstract

Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change for six basic reasons:

1. It is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and suffers from one of the worst patterns of inequality. Low-income groups in developing countries are the most exposed to climate change impacts.

2. It is the country in South America with the highest percentage of indigenous people, where much of the poverty and inequality is concentrated.

Abstract

Adaptation is not just about the risks to be endured due to climate variability. As the climate is changing so too is the operating environment for councils. Council decision-making processes need to support and strengthen the capacity of staff to identify inherent opportunities that arise from change, as well as the risks. ICLEI Oceania has been working with councils to build such capacity through the delivery of its CCP Adaptation Initiative, which benefits from the learnings of the CCP Program and the Australian Government's risk management work.

Abstract

Climate change is the primary long-term challenge facing Oregon’s people, ecosystems, and economies. Immediate action is needed to prepare for and proactively adapt to the consequences of climate change. State-level preparedness will be critical in coping with projected changes such as increased temperatures, rising sea levels and increased storm surges, declining snowpack, more frequent extreme precipitation events, and an increased risk of drought and heat waves. These changes have already created a broad array of secondary effects in Oregon’s ecosystems.

Abstract

Cities and other local authorities have a critical stake in the adaptation of water management to a changing climate. Virtually all the world’s future population growth is predicted to take place in cities and their urban landscapes. The UN estimates a global increase from the 2.9 billion urban residents in the 1990s to a staggering 5.0 billion by 2030. By 2030, 1 in 4 persons will live in a city of 500,000 people, and 1 in 10 will live in a mega-city of 10 million or more. How will climate change and variability affect water services and water safety for these many millions?

Abstract

Whatever happens to future greenhouse gas emissions, we are now locked into inevitable changes to climate patterns. Adaptation to climate change is therefore no longer a secondary and long-term response option only to be used as a last resort. It is now prevalent and imperative, and for those communities already vulnerable to the impacts of present day climate hazards, an urgent imperative. Successful adaptation must be accomplished through actions that target and reduce the vulnerabilities poor people now face, as they are likely to become more prevalent as the climate changes.

Abstract

Climate change and desertification/land degradation can adversely affect natural resources and ecosystems thus decreasing biological diversity. At the same time, conservation and management of biodiversity can increase ecosystems’ resilience thus lowering their vulnerability to climate change. One of the identified areas for possible synergies is adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change, which is a necessity regardless of the level of action taken to mitigate global warming.

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