Climate change may undermine the effectiveness of current efforts to conserve wildlife and ecosystems. Given that time and money for conservation are limited, there is a need for responsible investments that embrace the realities of a changing climate. A thorough consideration of anticipated climate change impacts can reveal the necessity of intentional, strategic, and forward-looking adjustments to what kinds of actions are being implemented, where actions are located, when actions are needed, and what goals those actions are designed to achieve.
Climate change adaptation presents a challenge for federal land management agencies in the United States. Increasingly, these agencies are turning to the concept of resilience to guide planning for an uncertain future. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to withstand disturbances and maintain its general structure and function. However, the concept can be challenging to operationalize, and a range of types of resilience and definitions for the concept exist.