The International Institute for Sustainable Development's mission is to promote human development and environmental sustainability through innovative research, communication and partnerships.
Established in 1990, IISD is an independent, non-profit organisation that provides practical solutions to the challenge of integrating environmental and social priorities with economic development. We report on international negotiations, conduct rigorous research, and engage citizens, businesses and policy-makers on the shared goal of developing sustainably.
The Climate and Development Knowledge Network supports decision-makers in designing and delivering climate compatible development. We do this by combining research, advisory services and knowledge management in support of locally owned and managed policy processes. We work in partnership with decision-makers in the public, private and non-governmental sectors nationally, regionally and globally. We hold strongly to the ideals of human development and environmental sustainability.
The primary purpose of this Strategy is to outline specific sub-strategies and recommendations to fulfill the stated adaptation goal and associated objectives (explained in Section 2). The overarching public purpose of the Strategy is to reduce the impacts of climate change through effective risk management. The Strategy is intended as a proactive approach in response to the findings of the vulnerability assessment conducted for the Metro-Boston Region.
This working paper addresses the following question: are climate change-related expenditures starting to appear in national budgets to secure the early implementation of countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)? It examines the evidence of resourcing NDC policies and actions in four sub-Saharan African countries – Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Uganda – that are known to be vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.