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Abstract

This report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It is largely based on results of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and integrates those results with related research from around the world. This report discusses climate-related impacts for various societal and environmental sectors and regions across the nation. It is an authoritative scientific report written in plain language, with the goal of better informing public and private decision making at all levels.

Abstract

This review focuses first on types of socioeconomic and biotic adaptations. Many individuals, public agencies, and nongovernmental organizations are discovering ways to protect biodiversity and sustain natural ecological processes. Five case studies are highlighted to illustrate some of these alternative adaptive responses to climatic changes at local and regional scales. These approaches could be modified for use in other locations.

Abstract

In the North Pacific, warming trends, coupled with declining sea ice, raise concerns about the effects of climate change on fish populations and ecosystem dynamics. Scientists are only beginning to understand the potential feedback mechanisms that will affect everything from plankton populations to major commercial fish species distributions, yet fishery managers have a responsibility to prepare for and respond to changing fishing patterns and potential ecosystem effects. There are ways for fishery managers to be proactive while waiting for better information to unfold.

Abstract

The climate is changing worldwide – and so are our living conditions. If we do not succeed in slowing the pace of global climate change, experts expect far-reaching consequences for the environment, society and the economy. That is why Germany, together with the member states of the European Union (EU), is seeking to contain the rise in mean global temperature. Experts consider that two degrees Celsius above preindustrial temperature levels is an acceptable maximum for keeping the consequences manageable.

Abstract

Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is the process of using simulation testing with feedback to examine the robustness of candidate management strategies to error and uncertainty. The structure of the management strategy can be selected to attempt to satisfy desired (but conflicting) management objectives.

Abstract

UNDP’s Strategy Plan 2008-2011 adopted as its programming core: ‘the promotion of adaptation to climate change.’

UNDP’s Climate Change Strategy’s GOAL has 4 pillars:

1. Support the design of integrated climate change policies, strategies and quantified actions plans

2. Promote early adaptation actions and long-term adaptive capacity of developing countries

3. Attract and drive direct private and public investment towards lower carbon technologies and sustainable land use practices

Abstract

Three linked workshops were held at the 4th IUCN Conservation Congress in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2008. The common theme among the workshops was the use of resilience approaches in conserving coral reefs. One workshop was focused on the science of resilience assessment, the second on applying resilience principles in Marine Protected Area Management, and the third on policy tools and approaches that can support resilience-based conservation.

Abstract

Decades of data and observations now point to a clear conclusion: the Clark Fork River basin is now experiencing a very real shift in climate. During the next 100 years, this shift is expected to accelerate, contributing to physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun.Scrolling through the months and the metrics from the 1950s, we now see that March in western Montana is hotter, more precipitation comes as rain, spring snowmelt arrives earlier, extreme wildfires are more frequent, and glaciers are making hastier retreats.

Abstract

Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures.

Abstract

Background:

According to the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other leading climate change researchers, climate change is impacting and will continue to affect the health and well being of people and communities throughout the world even if global greenhouse gas emissions are reduced to the Kyoto Protocol target levels. If left unmitigated, these climate changes are likely to exceed the capacity of natural, managed and human systems to adapt.

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