The Critical Area Commission was created in 1984 by the Maryland General Assembly.
In 2008, the Maryland General Assembly passed significant amendments to the Chesapeake & Coastal Bays Critical Area Act aimed at reducing Maryland's vulnerability to sea level rise and coastal storms over time and to protect natural resources from the impacts of sea level rise. As a result, the Commission has approved numerous regulatory changes aimed at improving shoreline buffers and living shorelines. In 2012, then Governor O'Malley signed the Climate Change and Coast Smart Construction Executive Order.
The Institute of Arctic Biology was founded in 1963 by the Board of Regents of the University of Alaska with Laurence Irving, a pioneer in the field of comparative physiology, as the founding director.
Adaptation research varies by faculty member, post-doctoral fellow, and graduate student. Several scientists are actively engaged in research that addresses the human dimensions of wildlife, others are involved in decision analysis - a systematic method for making natural resource decisions, and others are investigating changes to the boreal environment and how those changes are affecting human communities.