Subscribe to RSS - Research

Abstract

Assisted migration is a contentious issue that places different conservation objectives at odds with one another. This element of debate, together with the growing risk of biodiversity loss under climate change, means that now is the time for the conservation community to consider assisted migration. Our intent here is to highlight the problem caused by a lack of a scientifically based policy on assisted migration, suggest a spectrum of policy options, and outline a framework for moving toward a consensus on this emerging conservation dilemma.

Abstract

We describe the nature of recent (50 year) rainfall variability in the summer rainfall zone, South Africa, and how variability is recognised and responded to on the ground by farmers. Using daily rainfall data and self-organising mapping (SOM) we identify 12 internally homogeneous rainfall regions displaying differing parameters of precipitation change.

Abstract

The Great Barrier Reef is internationally renowned as a place of great beauty and ecological significance and is protected as a Marine Park and a World Heritage Area. It is of immense social, economic and cultural value to the people of Australia. While the Great Barrier Reef is recognised as one of the best-managed coral reef systems in the world, climate-related events have already caused significant impacts. Coral bleaching affected over 50% of reefs in both 1998 and 2002, and seabird nesting failures were observed in 2002 and 2005.

Abstract

Large-scale coral bleaching events, driven by unusually warm sea temperatures, have now affected every major coral reef ecosystem on the planet (Wilkinson 2004). The effects of coral bleaching are pervasive, and potentially devastating to ecosystems and the people and industries that depend upon them. The frequency and severity of these large-scale disturbances is predicted to increase as temperatures continue to warm under a global regime of climate change.

Abstract

Hydrometeorological hazards such as floods, droughts and tropical cyclones afflict many regions of the world, but their impact in terms of lives lost and livelihoods disrupted tends to fall most heavily on the poor in developing countries. Climate change threatens to heighten these impacts in many areas, both by changing the frequency and/or intensity of extreme events and by bringing changes in mean conditions that may alter the underlying vulnerability of populations to hazards.

Abstract

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)model was used to assess the effects of potential future climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Mississippi River Basin(UMRB). Calibration and validation of SWAT were performed using monthly stream flows for 1968-1987 and 1988-1997,respectively. The R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation efficiency values computed for the monthly comparisons were 0.74 and 0.69 for the calibration period and 0.82 and 0.81 for the validation period.

Abstract

Environmental and societal factors such as air quality, water quality and availability, land use changes and expanding urbanization are already affecting human health and welfare, agriculture, and natural ecosystems in the Midwestern United States. Over this century, these existing stresses will likely be exacerbated by climate changes resulting from human activities. It is essential that policy decisions aimed at preserving the well-being of a region be informed by a good understanding of the region’s climate, how climate might change, and the uncertainties inherent in future projections.

Abstract

As we stand at the beginning of the new millennium, the threats to nature and protected areas are unprecedented. While some progress has been made and strategies such as protected areas have been successful in preserving biodiversity in some places, new threats are arising.

Abstract

Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other gases seem likely to warm the earth in the next century. The article examines opportunities to prepare for the consequences, focussing on options that are rational even if one is skeptical about global warming. Some responses can be postponed. But many low-cost opportunities will slip away if we fail to act; and reaching a consensus on what is fair is easier when the consequences seem remote. It concludes that some changes in land use and water allocation should be implemented today, even if effective dates are several decades in the future.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Research