Resilience for Compounding and Cascading Events

Steve Moddemeyer, Christopher Emrich, Erick C. Jones Sr., Elena Krieger, Therese McAllister, Adam Z. Rose, Stacy Swann
Posted on: 12/07/2022 - Updated on: 12/08/2022

Posted by

Berna Oztekin-…



A cascading hazard refers to a primary event, such as heavy rainfall, seismic activity, or rapid snowmelt, followed by a chain of consequences that may range from modest (lesser than the original event) to substantial. Also, the type of cascading damage and losses may be more severe than if they had occurred separately. Currently, research on disasters has focused largely on those triggered by natural hazards interacting with vulnerable human systems (e.g., populations and organizations) and the built environment. Compounding and cascading natural hazards, whether acute or chronic in nature, can be further amplified by other events, such as public health outbreaks, supply chain disruptions and cyberattacks.

Resilience for Compounding and Cascading Events explores strategies that would enable the nation to be better prepared for and respond to these disasters so that affected communities can not only rebuild, but do so in a manner that increases their resilience to future events.


National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Resilience for Compounding and Cascading Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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