Adaptation Actions Table

In the table below, information is organized by habitats/locations and potential climate stressors/impacts, followed by suggested actions/options with supporting case studies, tools and resources. You can browse the table or use the search function to find suggestions for adaptation actions that can address specific climate stressors and impacts for a habitat or location. Terms are meant to align with and support the use of the North American Marine Protected Area Rapid Vulnerability Assessment Tool.

Letter codes in parentheses after entries indicate resource focus or stages in the Adaptation Ladder of Engagement.

Resource focus: Habitat/ecosystem (H), Species population (S), Infrastructure (I), Cultural (C), Policy (P), Other (O)

Adaptation Ladder of Engagement: 1.) Awareness (AW), 2.) Assessment (AS), 3.) Planning (PL), 4.) Implementation (IP), 5.) Integration (IT), 6.) Evaluation (EV), 7.) Sharing (SH)

This table is best viewed on desktop.
Habitats/Locations Climate Stressors & Impacts Actions/Options Case Studies Tools & Resources
Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing flooding -erosion and shoreline change Anticipate and facilitate inland/upland migration through site assessment, acquisition, and management (e.g., barrier removal) Aramburu Island Ecological Enhancement Project: This project enhances existing beach and tidal wetland habitat on a 17-acre wildlife preserve in the San Francisco Bay region (California), which will create a gradual transition zone to buffer wave action and allow landward habitat migration. (H) (PL)

Managed Retreat at Surfer's Point, California: This project focused on implementing a managed retreat strategy in the City of Ventury, California, which included relocation of a bike path and parking lot, beach renourishment, habitat restoration, and riprap removal in order to allow eroding shorelines to migrate inland. (H, I) (IP)

Coastal Ecosystem Restoration in Forillon National Park, Quebec: This project was intended to accomodate an increasingly dynamic shoreline due to SLR and decreasing sea ice by moving infrastructure (e.g., roads, snack bar, monument) away from the edge of the water, removing rip rap, and restoring native beach grasses. (H, I) (IP)

Conserving California's Coastal Habitats: The Nature Conservancy in California and the California State Coastal Conservancy (SCC) collaborated to produce the first statewide, comprehensive assessment of vulnerability in California's coastal habitats, which included identification of beaches and dunes that have a greater ability to migrate inland based on topography and surrounding land use. (H) (AS)

Humboldt Bay Dune Restoration: This project in Humboldt and Del Norte Counties in California focused on restoring sand transport in coastal dune systems through large-scale eradication of overstabilizing exotic grasses and other invasive plants, increasing the ability of dunes to migrate inland in response to sea level rise and storm surge. (H) (IP)
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)

Managed Retreat Toolkit: This toolkit, provided by the Georgetown Climate Center, provides information on legal and policy tools, best and emerging practices, and case studies to support learning and decision-making around managed retreat of people and ecosystems. (H, I)
 

Beach/Dune General resilience Demonstrate the value of ecosystem services provided by coastal dune systems to increase support for restoration by local communities Coastal Risk and Resilience in Mexico: The Nature Conservancy is collaborating with the private sector, governments and communities in Mexico Caribbean to increase investment and local capacity for dune restoration, which is driven by a demonstration of how these ecosystems protect the coast as well as creation of the tools, know-how and local capacities to restore and conserve them (H) (AW, PL)

Restoring Natural Dunes to Enhance Coastal Protection: Following Hurricane Sandy in 2012, neighborhoods that were inland of intact dune systems sustained less damage than those that abutted developed beaches, highlighting the value of natural dune restoration as a cost-effective way to increase the resilience of both the ecosystem and adjacent coastal communities. (H, I) (SH)

Increasing Ecosystem Services of Coastal Beaches and Dunes in the Pacific Northwest through Adaptation Planning: This project, led by the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, is using long-term monitoring data to evaluate the impact of climate change on Oregon and Washington beaches and dunes, with an emphasis on the ecosystem services they provide such as flood protection. (H)
 

Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (MESP): This website provides a database of valuation studies, methodologies, webinars and other training resources, and links to case studies related to ecosystem services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. (H)

Mapping Ocean Wealth: Website that includes resources such as the Atlas of Ocean Wealth, a collection of information about the economic, social, and cultural value of marine and coastal habitats across the globe; site also includes examples and tools specific to topics such as coastal flood protection, blue carbon, fisheries, recreation/tourism, and restoration prioritization. (H, I)
 

Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Increasing flooding -Erosion and shoreline change Identify and protect potential refugia (e.g., habitat areas that are likely to be resilient to sea level rise and other stressors) Waihe'e Refuge Restoration in Coastal Hawaii: Maui Coastal Land Trust (now the Hawaiian Islands Land Trust) acquired a 277-acre shoreline parcel that included the largest intact sand dune system in Hawaii and a historically significant site in Hawaiian culture. To increase the site’s resilience to climate change, managers are working with volunteers to remove invasive plants and replant the area with native plants. (H, C) (IP)

Conserving California's Coastal Habitats: The Nature Conservancy in California and the California State Coastal Conservancy (SCC) collaborated to produce the first statewide, comprehensive assessment of vulnerability in California's coastal habitats, identifying beaches and dunes that are less exposed to sea level rise and/or those that will likely be able to migrate inland (H) (AS)
 

Resilient Coastal Sites: Report, web mapping tool, story maps, datasets, and other resources related to an effort by The Nature Conservancy to identify the most resilient coastal sites along the Atlantic Seaboard and Gulf of Mexico, based on their capacity to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services under future sea level rise. (H)
 
Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Increasing flooding -Erosion and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for beaches/dunes and associated species Incorporating Climate Change Response into a General Management Plan, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: The National Park Service has developed a general management plan that incorporates climate change impacts on resources, infrastructure, and cultural assets, which includes a range of mangement tools and adaptation approaches for improving resilience to climate change. (H, I, C) (PL)

Kailua Beach and Dune Management Plan: The University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program collaborated with state agencies to develop a comprehensive beach and dune management and land use development plan for Kailua Beach (on the eastern/windward side of Oahu, Hawaii), which incorporates SLR and coastal erosion projections into recommendations for managing coastal development, natural resources, and cultural resources under changing climate conditions. (H, I) (PL)
 

Diagnóstico general de las dunas costeras de México: State of knowledge of coastal dunes, includes threats and management recommendations. (H)|hawaiian Islands Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Synthesis

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing flooding -erosion and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of sea level rise into coastal zone development and land-use policies (e.g., permitting, incentive programs) Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion in Hawaii: Hawaii counties are implementing "rate-based setbacks" for coastal construction, which base the shoreline setback rules on the rate of erosion for each parcel rather than a set 40-foot distance from the highest high tide line. (I) (IP)

Malibu Land Use and Local Implementation Plans: Malibu, California has incorporated climate change impacts (e.g., sea level rise, coastal storms) into development and land-use planning ordinances, including development setbacks, rules for shoreline armoring/hardening, and applications for new development. (I) (IP)

An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: An analysis of climate-related impacts on coastal zones in the Gulf of Mexico and recommendations to build support for a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H, I) (AW, AS)
 

The Climate Technology Centre: Provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities. (H, I)

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H, I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Increasing flooding -Erosion and shoreline change Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management Marine Turtles and Communities Adaptation to Climate Change in Junquillal: The Conservación – Baulas del Pacífico program created a process for public outreach and training of Junquillal and surrounding communities to provide education with an integrated focus on marine turtle conservation, climate change, and community well-being, and have involved community members in research, monitoring, and restoration initiatives for Junquillal Beach. (S) (IP)

Waihe'e Refuge Restoration in Coastal Hawaii: Maui Coastal Land Trust (now the Hawaiian Islands Land Trust) acquired a 277-acre parcel of wetlands and shorelines, which included the largest intact sand dune system in Hawaii and a historically significant site in Hawaiian culture. Managers are working with volunteers to remove invasive plants and replant the area with native plants, and they are introduced to the impacts that climate change will have on this site of cultural and natural significance. (H, C) (IP)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved extensive outreach and education surrounding dune restoration efforts, and the dunes were used as a "living classroom" where hundreds of students participated in restoration plantings. (H) (IP)
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 
Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves Increase vegetation cover to protect sensitive species (e.g., nesting turtles, birds) from temperature increases Marine Turtles and Communities Adaptation to Climate Change in Junquillal, Costa Rica: Conservación – Baulas del Pacífico program includes monitoring of sea turtle nests and sand temperature, and initial results demonstrated the role of beach vegetation in protecting turtle eggs from thermal stress. In response, the CBP program has collaborated with the community to design and implement a restoration plan that will increase shade provided by native coastal forests on Junquillal Beach. (S) (IP)
 
World Wildlife Fund Adaptation to Climate Change Toolkit: Coasts includes adaptation measures that could reduce the vulnerability of sea turtles and their habitats to climate change. (H,S) Manual de Restauración de Dunas Costeras
 
Beach/Dune General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species   Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing flooding -erosion and shoreline change Promote natural accretion through management strategies such as promoting feeder bluffs, revegetation with native species that capture sand, use of sand fencing, and development of sediment management plans and policies Humboldt Bay Dune Restoration: This project in Humboldt and Del Norte Counties in California focused on restoring sand transport in coastal dune systems through large-scale eradication of overstabilizing exotic grasses and other invasive plants, restoring essential dune processes (e.g., sand transport) and fostering ecosystem recovery. (H) (IP)

Gulf of Mexico Regional Sediment Management Master Plan: The Gulf of Mexico Alliance (a partnership between Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) developed this plan to organize and facilitate sediment management policies, with the goal of restoring regional sedimentary processes. (H) (PL)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved the use of fencing and revegetation on 20 acres of priority dune habitat to promote dune stabilization, growth, and resilience to future storm events. (H) (IP)
 

Puget Sound Feeder Bluffs: Coastal erosion as a sediment source and its implications for shoreline management. (H, I)

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Identifies sediment management opportunities, will inform statewide planning. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Beach/Dune General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors (e.g., recreational use, resource extraction) to enhance resilience to climate changes Sand dune restoration in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, British Columbia: This project included removal of invasive, which allowed the dynamic dune ecosystem to thrive. (H, S) (IP)|humboldt Bay Dune Restoration

Marine Turtles and Communities Adaptation to Climate Change in Junquillal: The Conservación – Baulas del Pacífico program in Costa Rica has used public outreach and training to successfully reduce sea turtle nest poaching and promote active conservation of marine turtles. (S) (IP)

Waihe'e Refuge Restoration in Coastal Hawaii: Volunteers are working with land managers from the Maui Coastal Land Trust (now the Hawaiian Islands Land Trust) to remove invasive plants and replant the area with native species in order to increase the resilience of intact sand dune system to climate change. (H, C) (IP)
 

Diagnóstico general de las dunas costeras de México: State of knowledge of coastal dunes, includes threats and managemnt recommendations. (H)
 
Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing flooding -erosion and shoreline change Restore natural sediment transport processes to ensure continued renourishment of beaches and dunes Large-Scale Restoration of Barrier Island Systems and Cultural Resource Protection through Sediment Placement, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi: The Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program is focused on restoring multiple barrier islands and protecting cultural resources. Projects include direct renourishment to replace a portion of sediment lost to dredging and storm impacts as well as modifying the placement of dredged material to restore natural sediment transport processes that will nourish nearby barrier islands; ongoing monitoring will guide future placement of dredged materials. (H, C) (IP)
 
Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan. (H)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Beach/Dune Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing flooding -erosion and shoreline change Use “soft-engineering” techniques, living shorelines, and/or natural infrastructure to enhance or mimic natural buffers Aramburu Island Ecological Enhancement Project, San Francisco Bay, California: This project enhances existing beach habitat on a 17-acre wildlife preserve, and will use soft engineering approaches (sand and gravel nourishment) to reduce shoreline erosion and buffer wave action. (H) (PL)

Oyster Reef Breakwater Restoration Project on Alabama’s Gulf Coast: This project focused on restoring oyster reef habitat in Mobile County, Alabama, with the goal of stabilizing eroding shorelines while also creating jobs and enhancing nursery habitat for oysters and fish (H, S) (IP)

Valuing coral reefs as shoreline storm protection in Quintana Roo: The Nature Conservancy is pioneering investment in reef conservation for shoreline protection. (H) (PL) Tropical Biogeomorphic Seagrass Landscapes for Coastal Protection

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H, I)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2). (H, I)
 

City of West Vancouver Shoreline Protection Plan, British Columbia: Plan demonstrates coastal-engineering and habitat-enhancement strategies to restore sites to a more natural state and provide self-sustaining, soft-armoring measures. (H, I)

Greening Shorelines to Enhance Resilience Adapting to Sea Level Rise, British Columbia: Advancing coastal protection policies and practices. Evaluates the performance and cost-effectiveness of soft shore armoring measures. (H, I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Changing water chemistry -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Identify and protect potential refugia Conserving California's Coastal Habitats: The Nature Conservancy in California and the California State Coastal Conservancy (SCC) collaborated to produce the first statewide, comprehensive assessment of vulnerability in California's coastal habitats, identifying rocky intertidal habitats that are less exposed to sea level rise and/or those that will likely be able to migrate inland. (H) (AS)
 
Resilient Coastal Sites: Report, web mapping tool, story maps, datasets, and other resources related to an effort by The Nature Conservancy to identify the most resilient coastal sites along the Atlantic Seaboard and Gulf of Mexico, based on their capacity to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services under future sea level rise. (H)
 
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Changing water chemistry -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for cliffs/rocky shores and associated species   Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of sea level rise into coastal zone development and land-use policies (e.g., permitting, incentive programs) Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion in Hawaii: Hawaii counties are implementing "rate-based setbacks" for coastal construction, which base the shoreline setback rules on the rate of erosion for each parcel rather than a set 40-foot distance from the highest high tide line. (I) (IP)

Malibu Land Use and Local Implementation Plans: Malibu, California has incorporated climate change impacts (e.g., sea level rise, coastal storms) into development and land-use planning ordinances, including development setbacks, rules for shoreline armoring/hardening, and applications for new development. (I) (IP)

An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: An analysis of climate-related impacts on coastal zones in the Gulf of Mexico and recommendations to build support for a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H, I) (AW, AS)
 

The Climate Technology Centre: Provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities. (H, I)

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H, I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Changing water chemistry -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management LiMPETS rocky intertidal monitoring: LiMPETS (Long-term monitoring program and experiential training for students) is a California citizen science program for for students, educators and volunteer groups. Citizen scientists gather baseline data on key indicator species for California Marine Protected Areas, allowing young people to develop a scientific understanding of the ocean. (H) (AW, AS)
 
Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves -Changing water chemistry -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Increase research and monitoring to improve understanding of the impacts of climate change on cliffs and rocky intertidal habitats Collecting Baseline Biological and Geologic Data to Understand Coastal Change, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska: The National Park Service Arctic Network Inventory and Monitoring Program already monitors climate data, and is developing long-term monitoring protocols for coastal erosion and lagoon biology that will contribute to an understanding of coastal resource vulnerabilities and support management decisions. (H, S, I, C) (AS, PL)

Investigating Ocean Acidification in the Rocky Intertidal: Cabrillo National Monument and Channel Islands National Park are instituting a new ocean acidification monitoring program that allows continuous measurement of pH within the intertidal zone, allowing researchers to evaluate trends in organism abundance, diversity, and community composition with respect to ocean acidification dynamics. (H) (IP)
 

 
Cliff/Rocky Shore General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species   Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Cliff/Rocky Shore General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes (e.g., restrict human visitation in vulnerable areas)   Restoring Rocky Intertidal Habitats in Santa Monica Bay: Describes restoration options for the rocky intertidal

Santa Monica Bay Restoration Plan Update provides progress on a number of strategies to reduce local stressors to the bay, including rocky intertidal, such as reducing visitation and runoff. (H):
 

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperatures -Increasing water temperatures Impact(s): -Overall warmer, drier conditions -Warmer winters and longer heat waves Restore and enhance vegetation (e.g., surfgrass, macroalgae) to provide shade that reduces water temperature and evaporation in tide pools Fucus Restoration, University of California, Santa Cruz: This project is field testing a novel approach to enhance recovery of rockweed (an intertidal algae) in areas that were damaged by the Cosco Busan oil spill, which involves using a limited number of donor adults to seed the restoration site. However, this project does not explicitly consider shade provided by these plants or the impacts of climate change. (S) (AS)
 
 
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Stabilize cliffs through climate-informed revegetation with native species and/o natural netting   European Climate Adaptation Platform - Cliff Stabilisation: Provides a description of cliff stabilization techniques and important considerations. (H)

Coastal cliff stabilization techniques in the UK: Case study information for 14 sites across the U.K. that have applied varying cliff stabilization techniques. (H)
 

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Support and/or restore primary producers (e.g., surfgrass, seagrass, macroalgae) to locally ameliorate reduced pH Installing Kelp Forests/Seaweed Beds for Mitigation and Adaptation Against Global Warming: The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea, and is being implemented to promote the removal of carbon via marine forests. (O) (IP)
 
Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H, S) Ocean Acidification Hotspots

OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Increased coastal erosion, inundation, and shoreline change Support the development of new rocky intertidal habitat by allowing allow natural cliff erosion Kayak Point, Washington Restoration Feasibility and Design: The project included the removal of 650 ft of bulkhead to reconnect coastal bluffs to the beach, allowing for natural sediment processes. (H, I) (IP)
 
Puget Sound Feeder Bluffs: Discusses coastal erosion as a sediment source and its implications for shoreline management. (H, I)
 
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal inundation, erosion, and shoreline change Use “soft-engineering” techniques, living shorelines, and/or natural infrastructure to enhance or mimic natural buffers Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H, I)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2). (H, I)
 

City of West Vancouver Shoreline Protection Plan, British Columbia: Plan demonstrates coastal-engineering and habitat-enhancement strategies to restore sites to a more natural state and provide self-sustaining, soft-armoring measures. (H, I)

Greening Shorelines to Enhance Resilience Adapting to Sea Level Rise, British Columbia: Advancing coastal protection policies and practices. Evaluates the performance and cost-effectiveness of soft shore armoring measures. (H, I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Coral Reef General resilience Demonstrate the value of ecosystem services provided by coral reefs to increase support for restoration by local communities Coastal Risk and Resilience in Mexico: The Nature Conservancy is collaborating with the private sector, governments and communities in Mexico Caribbean to increase investment and local capacity for coral reef restoration, which is driven by a demonstration of how these ecosystems protect the coast as well as creation of the tools, know-how and local capacities to restore and conserve them. (H) (AW, PL)
 
Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (MESP): This website provides a database of valuation studies, methodologies, webinars and other training resources, and links to case studies related to ecosystem services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. (H)

Mapping Ocean Wealth: Website that includes resources such as the Atlas of Ocean Wealth, a collection of information about the economic, social, and cultural value of marine and coastal habitats across the globe; site also includes examples and tools specific to topics such as coastal flood protection, blue carbon, fisheries, recreation/tourism, and restoration prioritization. (H, I)
 

Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Sea level rise Eliminate the use of destructive fishing practices that negatively impact reef accretion    
Coral Reef General resilience Encourage collaborative, multi-sector ocean governance and marine spatial planning to manage for multiple stressors and protect refugia Fostering Fisheries Management Efficiency Through Collaboration Networks: The Kanan Kay Alliance in the Mexican Caribbean is a voluntary, multi-stakeholder collaborative network that established a work plan focused on the establishment of fish refuges (no-take zones), enhancing a shared vision and communication around the efficient use of limited resources. (S) (AW, PL)
 
 
Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Coral bleaching Explore the use of "assisted evolution" techniques (e.g., inoculate corals with stress-resistant algae or microbes to reduce vulnerability to bleaching) Assisted Evolution: The Australian Institute of Marine Science is actively researching multiple assisted evolution processes to enhance coral resilience to increasing temperature and ocean acidification. (H, S) (PL)

Increasing Coral Resistance to Bleaching Through Microbiome Manipulation: A controlled aquarium experiment in Pocillopora damicornis corals from the Indo-Pacific Ocean found that inoculation with native beneficial microorganisms significantly reduced the impacts of bleaching, resulting in greater resistance to stress from pathogens and high temperatures. (H, S) (AS)
 

The Active Reef Restoration Toolbox is a Vehicle for Coral Resilience and Adaptation in a Changing World (Rinkevich 2019): This article reviews a range of improved methodologies for coral gardening that are focused on enhancing coral resilience and adaptation to climate change. (H, S)

Increasing Coral Resistance to Bleaching Through Microbiome Manipulation (Rosado et al. 2019): This study documents successful use of beneficial microorganisms to lessen the impact of bleaching on corals, suggesting that this could be a promising approach to minimize future mortality. (H, S)
 

Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Coral bleaching Explore the use of portable thermal management systems to prevent bleaching during forecasted heat events (e.g., pump cool water or use shade cloth to protect heat-stressed reef) Coral Reef Cooling in American Samoa: The Climate Foundation tested a field-based cooling system for reef water using portable thermal management systems in order to reverse the impacts of coral bleaching on a local scale. (H, S) (IP)
 
ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that include ways to respond to bleaching events. (H, S) A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching
 
Coral Reef Stressor(s) -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise Impact(s): -Coral bleaching -Changing water chemistry Identify and protect potential refugia (e.g., habitat areas that have demonstrated resilience to bleaching or other stressors) Using Climate Science to Plan for Sustainable Use of the Great Barrier Reef: The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan (Australia) has incorporated climate change to map site resilience and potential climate refugia to prioritize sites for protection and inform future uses (e.g., recreation). (H) (AS)

Promoting Resilience in the Mesoamerican Reef: Used monitoring and assessment to systematically identify the most resilience reefs, which may act as climate refugia and will be prioritized for protection. (H) (AS) Recognizing Coral Adaptations to Environmental Stressors, National Park of American Samoa

Florida Reef Resilience Program: This program is focused on studying the health of the Florida Reef tract, including what makes some corals more resistant than others to climate change impacts, what factors contribute to areas of high or low resistance, and why certain areas are more resilient than others; ultimately, increased understanding of these factors will guide management actions designed to increase climate change resilience of this reef. (H) (AS)
 

 
Coral Reef General resilience Improve fisheries management to protect spawning/nursery areas and limit the removal of herbivorous fish and apex predators that control macroalgae growth on coral reefs Protecting Fish to Save Coral Reefs: The Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources established a Fisheries Management Area designed to restrict extraction of herbivorous fish and invertebrates from the reefs off the west coast of Maui, with the goal of reversing reef degradation by macroalgae. (H, S) (IP)

Fostering Fisheries Management Efficiency Through Collaboration Networks: The Kanan Kay Alliance in the Mexican Caribbean is a voluntary, multi-stakeholder collaborative network that established a work plan focused on the establishment of fish refuges (no-take zones), enhancing a shared vision and communication around the efficient use of limited resources. (S) (AW, PL)
 

Managing Recovery Resilience in Coral Reefs Against Climate-Induced Bleaching and Hurricanes (Stenack et al. 2019): Long-term monitoring study that documents decline in macroalgae and coral recovery from hurricanes and bleaching events in the Caribbean after banning the harvest of parrotfish and phasing out the use of fish traps. (H, S)
 
Coral Reef Stressor(s) -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise Impact(s): -Coral bleaching -Changing water chemistry Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for coral reef ecosystems and associated species Using Climate Science to Plan for Sustainable Use of the Great Barrier Reef: The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan (Australia) has incorporated climate change to evaluate and prioritize sites for protection and/or various uses (e.g., recreation). (H) (AS)

Listing of Coral Reef Species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: The National Marine Fisheries Service successfully petitioned for the listing of 22 coral species as threatened and 3 species as endangered, based on climate change vulnerability as well as factors such as life history and species abundance. Designation will provide additional attention, research, and resources directed towards protecting coral reef species, and recovery plans include several adaptation strategies designed to reduce the impacts of bleaching and other climate stressors. (H, S) (AS, PL)
 

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (H,S)

Ocean Acidification 2.0: Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry
 

Coral Reef Stressor(s) -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise Impact(s): -Coral bleaching -Changing water chemistry Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management   ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that includes information on communication. (H,S)
 
Coral Reef General resilience Increase habitat connectivity to promote gene flow between environmentally variable habitats    
Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Increase research and monitoring to improve understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs   OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 
Coral Reef General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species   Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Coral Reef Stressor(s) -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Coral bleaching -Changing water chemistry Promote the maintenance or establishment of natural barriers (e.g., mangroves) between land-based sources of pollution/sediment and coral reefs Applying Green Infrastructure to Stem Runoff and Safeguard Puerto Rico’s Corals: The community, watershed managers, government agencies and nonprofit organizations green infrastructure practices to absorb excess water and reduce overall sediment loads overall sediment loads in Playa Tamarindo's marine habitats. (H) (IP)

Improving Water Quality on the Great Barrier Reef: Greening Australia is working with landowners, communities, and indigenous groups to rebuild eroding gullies and restore coastal wetlands, which together can prevent 400,000 tons of sediment from entering the reef each year; these efforts can be replicated in other systems. (H) (IP)
 

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that consider ocean acidification. (H, S)
 
Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Coral bleaching Reduce bleaching-induced mortality by relocating impacted corals to a site that favors recovery    
Coral Reef Stressor(s) -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Coral bleaching -Changing water chemistry Reduce coastal and nearshore pollutants (e.g., nutrient inputs, wastewater effluent) by regulating harmful compounds Increasing Awareness and Resilience of Coastal Wetlands and Reefs in Quintana Roo, Mexico: This conservation program is focused on improving water quality (e.g., by stopping the use of shallow well injections that release polluted water) to increase climate resilience of coastal wetlands, mangroves, and coral reefs within the region. (H) (PL)

Reducing Fertilizer Runoff, Great Barrier Reef Australia: Collaboration between government and farmers to reduce fertilizer runoff adversely affecting the Great Barrier Reef. (H) (IP)
 

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that includes information on reducing threats (e.g., pollutants). (H, S)

Reef protection regulations and best management practices for cane farmers and graziers: Help shift farming practices towards compliance with government directives to reduce runoff impacts to the reef. (H)
 

Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Support and/or restore primary producers (e.g., surfgrass, seagrass, macroalgae) to locally ameliorate reduced pH Installing Kelp Forests/Seaweed Beds for Mitigation and Adaptation Against Global Warming: The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea, and is being implemented to promote the removal of carbon via marine forests. (O) (IP)
 
Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H, S) Ocean Acidification Hotspots

OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 

Coral Reef General resilience Use coral gardening and sexual propagation techniques to strategically restore degraded reefs and increase genetic diversity of coral stocks Regrowing Coral Along the Riviera Maya, Mexico: This collaborative pilot project is focused on how to implement larger scale restoration by taking advantage of corals' sexual propagation, with the goal of enhancing the recovery of key coral species struggling against bleaching and disease. (H, S) (EV, SH)
 
ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that includes information on restoration. (H, S)
 
Coral Reef General resilience Use selective harvesting (e.g., predators of reef herbivores, species that bioerode reefs) in degraded reefs to enhance coral settlement and overall reef resilience    
Coral Reef Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Coral bleaching Utilize temporary closures during bleaching events to reduce additional stress on corals Managing Recreational Diving in Temporary Closures Following the 2010 Coral Bleaching Event in the Andaman Sea: This study focused on management strategies for degraded recreational dive sites following the 2010 coral bleaching event in a marine national park in the Andaman Sea (Thailand). Several popular dive sites were temporarily closed following the bleaching event, and long-term coral reef monitoring shows that coral cover at those sites increased slightly over the following five years. (H) (IP)
 
ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that includes information on reducing threats. (H, S) A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching
 
Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Boost local saturation state by chemical or mechanical means (e.g., installing bags of lime)    
Deep seafloor/ Canyon General resilience Encourage collaborative, multi-sector ocean governance and marine spatial planning to manage for multiple stressors and protect refugia New York Ocean Action Plan: This plan is a collaborative effort to manage the state’s coastal, estuarine, and ocean waters, from New York City to Montauk Point out to the edge of the outer continental shelf. Goals include increasing the resilience of ocean resources to climate-related impacts, and the plan includes several actions specific to climate change such as conducting vulnerability assessments and implementing sustainable sediment management options. (H, S, I) (PL)

Incorporating Climate Change in Marine Use Plans for British Columbia’s First Nations: A partnership between the government of British Columbia and First Nations to integrate climate change into marine use plans for the North Pacific Coast. (H, C) (AW, PL)
 

Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative - Climate Change Working Group: Discusses integration of climate change impacts and cumulative pressures on deep-sea ecosystems into environmental impact assessment and management plans and design of Marine Protected Areas. The working group also identifies high-vulnerability areas and fosters interdisciplinary approaches to investigate how deep-sea ecosystems interact with climate on a functional basis. (H) INDEEP

Options for Managing Impacts of Climate Change on a Deep-Sea Community: Discusses adaptation options for a deep-sea Australian coral community developed and evaluated at a workshop (supplementary tables list adaptation options). (H)
 

Deep seafloor/ Canyon General resilience Enhance monitoring of deep sea habitats and species to better inform decision-making and future adaptation efforts Knowledge Sharing to Inform Conservation and Research Decisions for the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument (MNM): This study used interviews with scientists to determine drivers of change and vulnerability in deep-sea ecosystems, perceptions of knowledge gaps, and suggested research priorities. (H) (AS)
 
INDEEP: International Network for Scientific Investigation of Deep-Sea Ecosystems
 
Deep seafloor/ Canyon General resilience Enhance resilience to climate by reducing non-climate stressors (e.g., commercial fishing, oil and gas extraction, pollution) to enhance resilience to climate changes   Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative - Climate Change Working Group: Discusses integration of climate change impacts and cumulative pressures on deep-sea ecosystems into environmental impact assessment and management plans and design of Marine Protected Areas. The working group also identifies high-vulnerability areas and fosters interdisciplinary approaches to investigate how deep-sea ecosystems interact with climate on a functional basis. (H)

Options for Managing Impacts of Climate Change on a Deep-Sea Community: Discusses adaptation options for a deep-sea Australian coral community developed and evaluated at a workshop (supplementary tables list adaptation options). (H)
 

Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification - Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry and nutrient content - Diminishing dissolved oxygen Identify and protect potential refugia Identifying Potential Marine Climate Change Refugia in Canada’s Pacific Marine Ecosystems: This research study models areas in the northeastern Pacific where sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and chlorophyll a are stable or changing slowly, which may indicate potential climate refugia. (H) (AS)
 
 
Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry and nutrient content -Diminishing dissolved oxygen Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management    
Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor(s): -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry and nutrient content -Diminishing dissolved oxygen Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts of changes in currents and upwelling/mixing   OceanAdapt webtool: Collates data on shifts in marine species distributions over time (focus on commercial and recreational species). (S)

Ecological Role of Submarine Canyons and Need for Canyon Conservation: Identifies the ecological status of canyons, current/future issues for canyon conservation, highlights the need for a better understanding of anthropogenic impacts, and proposes research to inform management measures. The publication also discusses potential for climate change to modify the intensity of currents, impacting the structure and functioning of canyon communities and nutrient supply to deep-ocean ecosystems. (H)

OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 

Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Monitor and regulate localized sources of acidification from runoff (e.g., pollutants such as fertilizers)   Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification. (H, S)

Ocean Acidification 2.0: Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry

Ocean Acidification Hotspots: Online interactive map that shows where the ocean chemistry is changing most rapidly, where vulnerable species are located, and where people who most depend on these species reside. (H, S)

OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Anticipate and facilitate inland/upland migration through site assessment, acquisition, and management (e.g., development setbacks, barrier removal) Aramburu Island Ecological Enhancement Project: This project enhances existing beach and tidal wetland habitat on a 17-acre wildlife preserve in the San Francisco Bay region (California), which will create a gradual transition zone to buffer wave action and allow landward habitat migration. (H) (PL)

Restoring the Giacomini Wetlands from Agricultural Lands, Point Reyes National Seashore, California: This restoration project used sea level rise modeling to account for future habitat migration and retention of high marsh habitat; it also incorporated a pre- and post-restoration monitoring program for hydrology, topography, sedimentation, water quality, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, fisheries, vegetation, and birds. (H) (EV)

Conserving California's Coastal Habitats: The Nature Conservancy in California and the California State Coastal Conservancy (SCC) collaborated to produce the first statewide, comprehensive assessment of vulnerability in California's coastal habitats, which included identification of estuarine marshes and mudflats that have a greater ability to migrate inland based on topography and surrounding land use. (H) (AS)

Planning for Marsh Migration at the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge: This project was intended to support salt marsh migration in Dorcester County, Maryland through actions designed to improve the health and productivity of existing marsh areas, help transitional areas convert into tidal marsh, and conserve primary marsh migration corridors. (H) (IP)

Modeling Sea Level Rise Impacts to Oregon’s Tidal Wetlands: This project modeled and prioritized "Landward Migration Zones" (LMZs) to help plan tidal wetland conservation into the future. (H) (AS)
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk (H, I).

Managed Retreat Toolkit: This toolkit, provided by the Georgetown Climate Center, provides information on legal and policy tools, best and emerging practices, and case studies to support learning and decision-making around managed retreat of people and ecosystems. (H, I)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Demonstrate the value of ecosystem services provided by estuaries, wetlands, and mudflats to increase support for restoration by local communities   Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (MESP): This website provides a database of valuation studies, methodologies, webinars and other training resources, and links to case studies related to ecosystem services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. (H)

Mapping Ocean Wealth: Website that includes resources such as the Atlas of Ocean Wealth, a collection of information about the economic, social, and cultural value of marine and coastal habitats across the globe; site also includes examples and tools specific to topics such as coastal flood protection, blue carbon, fisheries, recreation/tourism, and restoration prioritization. (H, I)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and variable water availability/flow -Increased turbidity and changes in local salinity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms -Changing water chemistry -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Identify and protect potential refugia Conserving California's Coastal Habitats: The Nature Conservancy in California and the California State Coastal Conservancy (SCC) collaborated to produce the first statewide, comprehensive assessment of vulnerability in California's coastal habitats, identifying estuarine marshes and mudflats that are less exposed to sea level rise and/or those that will likely be able to migrate inland. (H) (AS)
 
Resilient Coastal Sites: Report, web mapping tool, story maps, datasets, and other resources related to an effort by The Nature Conservancy to identify the most resilient coastal sites along the Atlantic Seaboard and Gulf of Mexico, based on their capacity to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services under future sea level rise. (H)
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and variable water availability/flow -Increased turbidity and changes in local salinity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms -Changing water chemistry -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for estuaries/wetlands/mudflats and associated species Incorporating Climate Change Response into a General Management Plan, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: The National Park Service has developed a general management plan that incorporates climate change impacts on resources, infrastructure, and cultural assets, which includes a range of mangement tools and adaptation approaches for improving resilience to climate change. (H, I, C) (PL) Incorporating Climate Change in Marine Use Plans for British Columbia’s First Nations
 
EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change. (H)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of sea level rise into coastal zone development and land-use policies (e.g., permitting, incentive programs) San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission's Climate Change Planning Program: The San Francisco Bay Plan (California) is a comprehensive interagency plan to address sea level rise and other climate stressors through planning, mitigation, and permitting, and is being implemented by the Bay Conservation and Development Commission. (H, I) (PL, IP).

Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion in Hawaii: Hawaii counties are implementing "rate-based setbacks" for coastal construction, which base the shoreline setback rules on the rate of erosion for each parcel rather than a set 40-foot distance from the highest high tide line. (I) (IP)

An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: An analysis of climate-related impacts on coastal zones in the Gulf of Mexico and recommendations to build support for a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H, I) (AW, AS)
 

The Climate Technology Centre: Provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities. (H, I)

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H, I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and variable water availability/flow -Increased turbidity and changes in local salinity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms -Changing water chemistry -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management Waihe'e Refuge Restoration in Coastal Hawaii: Maui Coastal Land Trust (now the Hawaiian Islands Land Trust) acquired a 277-acre parcel of wetlands and shorelines, which included a historically significant site in Hawaiian culture. Managers are working with volunteers to remove invasive plants and replant the area with native plants, and they are introduced to the impacts that climate change will have on this site of cultural and natural significance. (H, C) (IP)

Increasing Coastal Resilience through Restoration and Education in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: The Save the Bay program is restoring salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, and has incorporated climate change into their education and public outreach curriculum in order to raise awareness of climate impacts and increase support for efforts to increase coastal resilience. (H) (IP, SH)

Communication Pathways to Integrate Fishers in the Design of a Network of Fishery Replenishment Zones in the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California (Spanish): Organized civil society, academics and decision makers worked together to design fishery replenishment zones to support small-scale fisheries. (H) (AW, PL)
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats   Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts of climate change on estuaries, wetlands, and mudflats Collecting Baseline Biological and Geologic Data to Understand Coastal Change, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska: The National Park Service Arctic Network Inventory and Monitoring Program already monitors climate data, and is developing long-term monitoring protocols for coastal erosion and lagoon biology that will contribute to an understanding of coastal resource vulnerabilities and support management decisions. (H, S, I, C) (AS, PL)

Sentinel Monitoring of Salt Marshes in the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve: This site, along with four other National Estuarine Research Reserves, is acting as a sentinel site, where a long-term ecological monitoring program has been set up to to determine the effects of sea level rise, warmer temperatures, and coastal storms on salt marshes. (H) (AS)

Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Wetlands in the Gulf of Mexico: This pilot project was designed to support adaptation policy development in Mexico by studying coastal wetlands, including biological function and biodiversity, their role in regional water supplies, and the impacts of increased temperatures, droughts, and sea level rise. (H) (AS)

Responding to Ocean Acidification: The Oyster Emergency Project was proposed by the Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association with the goal of enhancing hatchery production, establishing monitoring programs in key estuaries, identifying resilient oyster genotypes, and identifying better tools to detect disease-causing bacteria. (S) (AS, PL, IP)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved modeling sediment deposition and salinity gradients in marshes and tidal creeks. Modeling efforts will be used to guide management actions focused on increasing climate resilience and maximizing benefits to the entire ecosystem. (H) (PL)
 

 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and variable water availability/flow -Increased turbidity and changes in local salinity Increase watershed management planning to maintain water quality and quantity under a changing climate Greater Vancouver’s Stormwater Management Program: The Greater Vancouver Regional District in Canada formed the Stormwater Interagency Liaison Group (SILG) to assist municipalities in the creation of watershed-specific Integrated Stormwater Management Plans, which include measures such as on-site rainfall retention, the re-exposure and naturalization of culverted or buried streams, reduction targets for total impervious area and improved public access to waterways. (I) (IP)
 
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperatures Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms -Impaired water quality Maintain streamflow to mitigate temperature increases Restoration of Streamflow and Hydrology in Massachusetts: The Critical Linkages Project focuses on the development of tools that support identification of wetland habitats with altered hydrology that would benefit from restoration. While this project was not designed to specifically address maintaining streamflow to mitigate temperature increases, this is considered one potential benefit of the project. (H, I) (PL)
 
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperatures Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and variable water availability/flow -Increased turbidity and changes in local salinity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms Maintain/restore natural tidal and hydrologic connectivity (e.g., water exchange, flow rates) to improve water quality and promote accretion South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Restoration of tidal wetlands in San Francisco, California using an adaptive management framework to determine the optimum balance between restored tidal marsh and managed salt ponds in order to improve water quality, bird habitat, recreation/public access, and flood protection while avoiding adverse impacts to ecosystem services. (H, S) (IP, IT, EV)

Restoring the Giacomini Wetlands from Agricultural Lands, Point Reyes National Seashore, California: This restoration project restored tidal wetlands through levee removal, channel construction, and native plantings; it also incorporated a pre- and post-restoration monitoring program for hydrology, topography, sedimentation, water quality, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, fisheries, vegetation, and birds. (H) (EV)

Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge/Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula Climate Adaptation Project: The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) partnered to install water control structures equipped with flashboard risers and tide gates to restore the hydrologic regime and prevent saltwater intrusion; post-restoration monitoring efforts are underway to evaluate the placement of these structures. (H) (EV)

Increasing Coastal Resilience through Restoration and Education in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: The Save the Bay program is removing dams in Narragansett Bay to restore natural habitat and wildlife, improve natural sediment fluxes and beach nourishment, and improve water quality (natural water temperatures, dissolved oxygen levels). (H) (IP)

Restoring Tidal Flow and Enhancing Shoreline Resilience in the Nisqually River Delta, Washington: The Nisqually Delta Restoration Project restored 22 miles of the historic delta system through dike removal to restore tidal flow to the marsh. Post-restoration monitoring includes evaluation of sediment delivery, geomorphic change, and species response. (H, S) (IP, EV)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved assessing over 1,000 dams, road-stream crossings, and coastal stabilization structures to determine where removal, replacement, or retrofitting will increase hydrologic connectivity and increase coastal resilience. (H) (PL)
 

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change. (H) Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish)
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal erosion Manually enhance base elevations (e.g., add sediment) Restoring the Jamaica Bay Wetlands, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York: Using a variety of experimental techniques, the National Park Service added sediment to the surface of a degraded urban salt marsh to increase elevation, and set up a comprehensive monitoring and adaptive management program at each restoration site. (H) (EV)

Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge Thin-layer Salt Marsh Sediment Augmentation Pilot Project: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is piloting a method involving the application of a thin layer of dredge sediment on the surface of a salt marsh in Orange County, California, with rapid development of vegetation and channels occurring on the site. (H) (IP) Planning for Marsh Migration at the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species   Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal erosion Promote dynamic sediment movement and natural accretion through strategies such as promoting feeder bluffs, revegetation with native species that capture sand, use of sand fencing, and removal of barriers Restoring Tidal Flow and Enhancing Shoreline Resilience in the Nisqually River Delta, Washington: The Nisqually Delta Restoration Project restored 22 miles of the historic delta system through dike removal to restore tidal flow to the marsh. Post-restoration monitoring indicate that dike removal has resulted in deposit of sediments within the marsh, causing increases in mean elevation. (H, S) (IP, EV)
 
Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats. (H) Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperatures -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms -Increasing coastal erosion Protect/restore habitat structural complexity and biodiversity Maidford River Saltmarsh Restoration, Rhode Island: Native vegetation biodiversity and structural complexity was restored through the removal of invasive species and the addition of sediment to make up for lost accretion. While the goal of the project was general restoration, improved vegetation complexity, which provides shading, and increased marsh height, which prevents intertidal stagnation, can lead to lower marsh water temperatures. (H, S) (IP)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved restoration of 10,000 acres of salt marsh through the removal of invasive Common Reed (Phragmites australis), Perennial Pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), and European Green Crabs. (H) (IP)
 

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats. (H)
 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperatures -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and variable water availability/flow -Increased turbidity and changes in local salinity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen, harmful algae blooms -Changing water chemistry Reduce coastal and nearshore pollutants (e.g., nutrient inputs, wastewater effluent) by regulating harmful compounds Increasing Awareness and Resilience of Coastal Wetlands and Reefs in Quintana Roo, Mexico: This conservation program is focused on improving water quality (e.g., by stopping the use of shallow well injections that release polluted water) to increase climate resilience of coastal wetlands, mangroves, and coral reefs within the region. (H) (PL) Green Streets Program, San Francisco
 
Intervention Options to Accelerate Ecosystem Recovery From Coastal Eutrophication: Review article that discusses broad, comprehensive approaches to control eutrophication at an ecosystem scale. (H)

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H) OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change. (H)

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience. (H)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Climate-Informed Watershed Restoration on the Elizabeth River, Virginia: The Elizabeth River Project is focused on increasing the climate resilience of the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding community, and has undertaken over 100 wetland restoration, storm buffer, and sediment cleanup projects since 1997. (H, I) (PL, IP, IT)

Restoring Logging-Damaged Creeks for Salmon in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia: This partnership includes First Nation, community, youth and Parks Canada, and involves restoration of three streams that were damaged by logging. (H, S) (IP)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved restoration of 10,000 acres of salt marsh through the removal of invasive Common Reed (Phragmites australis), Perennial Pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), and European Green Crabs. (H) (IP)
 

 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Support and/or restore primary producers (e.g., surfgrass, seagrass, macroalgae) to locally ameliorate reduced pH Installing Kelp Forests/Seaweed Beds for Mitigation and Adaptation Against Global Warming: The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea, and is being implemented to promote the removal of carbon via marine forests. (O) (IP)
 
Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H, S) Ocean Acidification Hotspots

OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal erosion Use “soft-engineering” techniques, living shorelines, and/or natural infrastructure to enhance or mimic natural buffers that slow coastal erosion South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Restoration of tidal wetlands in San Francisco, California to provide a natural buffer against the effects of sea level rise, coastal flooding, and erosion, while also maintaining and/or improving water quality, wildlife habitat, and recreation/public access. (H, S) (IP, IT, EV)

Aramburu Island Ecological Enhancement Project: This project enhances existing beach and tidal wetland habitat on a 17-acre wildlife preserve in the San Francisco Bay region (California), which will use soft engineering approaches (sand and gravel nourishment) to reduce erosion and buffer wave action. (H) (PL)

Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge/Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula Climate Adaptation Project: The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) partnered to construct oyster reefs that will dissipate wave energy, slow currents, and reduce shoreline erosion; post-restoration monitoring efforts are underway to evaluate erosion, water quality, oyster recruitment, and faunal use. (H) (EV)

Oyster Reef Breakwater Restoration Project on Alabama’s Gulf Coast: This project focused on restoring oyster reef habitat in Mobile County, Alabama, with the goal of stabilizing eroding shorelines while also creating jobs and enhancing nursery habitat for oysters and fish. (H, S) (IP)

San Francisco Bay Living Shorelines Project: This pilot project is focused on restoration of subtidal habitats (eelgrass, oyster reefs), followed by evaluation to determine whether restoration benefits adjacent habitats. (H) (AS, PL)

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H, I)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2). (H, I)
 

City of West Vancouver Shoreline Protection Plan, British Columbia: Plan demonstrates coastal-engineering and habitat-enhancement strategies to restore sites to a more natural state and provide self-sustaining, soft-armoring measures. (H, I)

Greening Shorelines to Enhance Resilience Adapting to Sea Level Rise, British Columbia: Advancing coastal protection policies and practices. Evaluates the performance and cost-effectiveness of soft shore armoring measures. (I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adaptation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow Explore the possibility of facilitating range shifts in ice-dependent species   Range Contraction and Increasing Isolation of a Polar Bear Subpopulation in an Era of Sea-Ice Loss: Paper demonstrating polar bear movement changes linked to climate at different time scales. (S)
 
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Identify and protect potential refugia    
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Identify cultural resources and collect information or materials from vulnerable sites that may be lost Cultural Resources Inventory and Vulnerability Assessment at the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska: The National Park Service is using GIS to identify archaeological sites and assess their vulneraiblity to coastal erosion, which will allow prioritization of more thorough archaeological inventories. (C) (AS)
 
The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures. (I)
 
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for ice/snow-dependent species Polar Bear Designation Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Geological Survey successfully petitioned for the listing of polar bears as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to the impacts of rising temperatures on sea ice extent, making them one of the first species listed due to climate change impacts on habitat. Designation will provide additional attention, research, and resources directed towards protecting U.S. populations of polar bears. (S) (AW, PL)
 
 
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management    
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts of climate change on snow, ice, and permafrost (e.g., depth, density, cover, thickness) The Igliniit Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project: In Nunavut, Canada, indigenous Inuit hunters are provided with GPS devices attached to their snowmobiles/machines that log routes, weather conditions, and observations of hunters as they travel throughout the Canadian Arctic; this data is used to create community maps and will support evaluation of trends in hunting patterns and land and sea ice conditions over time. (H, C) (AS)

Collecting Baseline Biological and Geologic Data to Understand Coastal Change, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska: The National Park Service Arctic Network Inventory and Monitoring Program already monitors climate data, and is developing long-term monitoring protocols for coastal erosion and lagoon biology that will contribute to an understanding of coastal resource vulnerabilities and support management decisions. (H, S, I, C) (AS, PL)

Monitoring Lake Ice and Snow in Alaska: The Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network (ALISON) Project facilitates research on snow and ice depth, density, cover, and thickness; this information is then incorporated into a larger data set to establish a baseline to measure the effects of climate change. (H) (AS)
 

National Snow and Ice Data Center: Provides and analyzes data relating to snow and ice resources. (H)
 
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Plan for and facilitate retreat as erosion increases due to declining sea and shore ice Coastal Ecosystem Restoration in Forillon National Park, Quebec: This project was intended to accomodate an increasingly dynamic shoreline due to SLR and decreasing sea ice by moving infrastructure (e.g., roads, snack bar, monument) away from the edge of the water, removing rip rap, and restoring native beach grasses. (H, I) (IP) Relocating the Village of Newtok, Alaska
 
Managed Retreat Toolkit: This toolkit, provided by the Georgetown Climate Center, provides information on legal and policy tools, best and emerging practices, and case studies to support learning and decision-making around managed retreat of people and ecosystems. (H, I)
 
Ice/Snow Stressor(s): -Increasing air temperature -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Accelerating melt of ice/snow Promote winter ice development via wind-powered pumping of cool water to ice surface for rapid freezing   Arctic Ice Management: Paper exploring the feasibility of wind-powered pumps to promote ice development. (H)
 
Ice/Snow General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Preparing to Respond to Oil Spills in the Arctic: The U.S. Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) conduct month-long scientific expeditions yearly to demonstrate and evaluate tools, technologies, and techniques for dealing with Arctic oil spills. The Arctic Shield expeditions also conduct simulated oil spills to give crews practice in cleanup procedures. (H) (IT)
 
 
Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increasing riverine/freshwater flooding -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Design and utilize infrastructure that can accommodate climate changes, including portable and/or elevated and flood-resilient infrastructure Proactive Incorporation of Sea Level Rise into the Design of the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant: The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority designed an elevated wastewater treatment plant in Boston, Massachusetts to accommodate sea level rise projected to occur for the life of the facility. (I) (SH)

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Visitor Facilities, Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts: Following a winter storm that damaged visitor facilities and the parking lot at a popular beach, the National Park Service designed moveable replacement structures that were on pilings above base flood elevation. The parking lot will also be rebuilt on higher-elevation land, at a distance that takes future sea level rise and coastal erosion into account. (I) (IP, EV)

Relocating Visitor Facilities Threatened by Erosion, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: The National Park Service replaced permanent visitor facilities with portable infrastructure that can be relocated off-island in advance of storms. Roads and parking lots are also created from natural materials that can be moved and will not introduce foreign debris onto post-storm beaches. (I) (PL, EV)

Rehabilitating Stream Crossings on Historic Roads in Acadia National Park, Maine: The National Park Service conducted an inventory of all culverts, headwalls, and bridges, then re-engineered these structures based on projected streamflow changes in order to reduce damage and visitor use closures and restore aquatic animal passage and natural stream hydrology. (I) (IP) Tampa Bay Diversifies Water Sources to Reduce Climate Risk

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2). (H, I)
 

Canadian Extreme Water Level Adaptation Tool (CAN-EWLAT): A science-based planning tool for climate change adaptation of coastal infrastructure related to future water-level extremes and changes in wave climate. The tool includes two main components

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk (H, I). Flood Resilience - A Basic Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities

Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure: An EPA guide published to help communities manage stormwater with green infrastructure. (I)

A Guide to Assessing Green Infrastructure Costs and Benefits for Flood Reduction: Guide that lays out a six-step watershed-based approach for documenting the costs of flooding, projecting increased flooding and associated costs under future land use and climate conditions, and calculating the long-term benefits and costs of a green infrastructure approach. (I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Facilitate managed retreat through relocation of coastal infrastructure and human communities Relocating the Lighthouse, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina: Following many unsuccessful attempts to protect a historic lighthouse with hard structures, it was relocated inland by 0.9 km (0.55 mi), although the new location may still be vulnerable in the long-term. (I) (SH)

Restoration and Managed Retreat of Pacifica State Beach, California: In response to major flooding and erosion, the City of Pacifica designed and implemented a managed retreat strategy for Pacifica State Beach, which involved relocating vulnerable infrastructure as well as restoration of beaches and dunes to reduce future flooding threats. (H, I) (SH)

Managed Retreat at Surfer's Point, California: This project focused on implementing a managed retreat strategy in the City of Ventury, California, which included relocation of a bike path and parking lot, beach renourishment, habitat restoration, and riprap removal in order to allow eroding shorelines to migrate inland. (H, I) (IP)

Relocating the Village of Newtok, Alaska: This native Alaskan village is in the process of relocating their entire population to a new site due to declining sea ice protection and increased storm surge exposure. (I, C) (IP)

Relocating the Village of Kivalina, Alaska: This village in the process of searching for an appropriate relocation site; in the meantime, they are taking measures to prevent erosion at their current location. (I, C) (PL) Coastal Ecosystem Restoration in Forillon National Park, Quebec
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)

Managed Retreat Toolkit: This toolkit, provided by the Georgetown Climate Center, provides information on legal and policy tools, best and emerging practices, and case studies to support learning and decision-making around managed retreat of people and ecosystems. (H, I)

Managed Coastal Retreat - A Legal Handbook on Shifting Development Away from Vulnerable Areas: This Handbook collects examples, case studies, and lessons learned from communities around the United States that are already addressing sea level rise through managed retreat; the key legal issues raised by these examples are also discussed. (I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns Impact(s): -Flashy rain events and longer dry periods Improve stormwater management (e.g., bioswales, permeable pavement, street trees/catchment/storage) to reduce flooding in developed areas Greater Vancouver’s Stormwater Management Program: The Greater Vancouver Regional District in Canada formed the Stormwater Interagency Liaison Group (SILG) to assist municipalities in the creation of watershed-specific Integrated Stormwater Management Plans, which include measures such as on-site rainfall retention, the re-exposure and naturalization of culverted or buried streams, reduction targets for total impervious area and improved public access to waterways. (I) (IP)

Enhancing Flood Resilience with the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan: This plan outlines a 50-year program of water system upgrades and urban design projects to reduce flood risk and improve stormwater, surface water, and groundwater management in New Orleans, Louisiana. (I) (PL)
 

Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure: An EPA guide published to help communities manage stormwater with green infrastructure. (I)

Storm Water Management Model (SWMM): The EPA's stormwater management tool helps predict runoff quality and quantity, and a new Climate Adjustment Tool also enables users to add climate projections to their simulations. (I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increasing riverine/freshwater flooding -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for developed sites Incorporating Climate Change Response into a General Management Plan, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: The National Park Service has developed a general management plan that incorporates climate change impacts on resources, infrastructure, and cultural assets, which includes a range of mangement tools and adaptation approaches for improving resilience to climate change. (H, I, C) (PL)
 
Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H, I) The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy

A Guide to Assessing Green Infrastructure Costs and Benefits for Flood Reduction: Guide that lays out a six-step watershed-based approach for documenting the costs of flooding, projecting increased flooding and associated costs under future land use and climate conditions, and calculating the long-term benefits and costs of a green infrastructure approach. (I)

Climate Change Adaptation through Local Comprehensive Planning – Guidance for Puget Sound Communities: This resource provides a framework for incorporating climate change into comprehensive planning efforts, and includes questions to consider for critical elements such as infrastructure, housing, and land use. (I)

Canadian Extreme Water Level Adaptation Tool (CAN-EWLAT): A science-based planning tool for climate change adaptation of coastal infrastructure related to future water-level extremes and changes in wave climate. The tool includes two main components

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Incorporate consideration of sea level rise into coastal zone development and land-use policies (e.g., permitting, incentive programs) Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion in Hawaii: Hawaii counties are implementing "rate-based setbacks" for coastal construction, which base the shoreline setback rules on the rate of erosion for each parcel rather than a set 40-foot distance from the highest high tide line. (I) (IP)

Malibu Land Use and Local Implementation Plans: Malibu, California has incorporated climate change impacts (e.g., sea level rise, coastal storms) into development and land-use planning ordinances, including development setbacks, rules for shoreline armoring/hardening, and applications for new development. (I) (IP)

An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: An analysis of climate-related impacts on coastal zones in the Gulf of Mexico and recommendations to build support for a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (P) (AW, AS)

Legal and Policy Options for Advancing Coastal Resilience in Southern Connecticut: The Regional Framework for Coastal Resilience in Southern Connecticut is focused on reducing risks associated with extreme weather events and building community resilience in 10 contiguous coastal municipalities; it includes guidance on legal and policy options to advance the use of natural/green infrastructure through land-use planning and zoning, among other topics. (I, P) (AS)
 

The Climate Technology Centre: Provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities. (H, I)

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H, I) The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increasing riverine/freshwater flooding -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management The Netherlands Live With Water" Public Awareness Campaign: The campaign emphasizes that the current water management system based on technological solutions is inadequate and more space is needed to store water; it also promotes steps individuals can take to reduce the threat of flooding. (I) (AW)

Designing a Communications Handout About Sea Level Rise: The NOAA Office for Coastal Management, the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, and the City of Charleston incorporated input from a climate change vulnerability focal group to create a simple handout that can help city residents better understand how sea level rise will interact with existing problems with tidal flooding. (I)
 

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 
Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increasing riverine/freshwater flooding -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Limit development and avoid rebuilding in floodplains and other low-elevation areas at high risk of coastal or freshwater flooding Strengthening Floodplain Regulation in Waveland, Mississippi: FEMA floodplain maps were updated and new floodplain ordinances were created following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. (I) (SH)

Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion in Hawaii: Hawaii counties are implementing "rate-based setbacks" for coastal construction, which base the shoreline setback rules on the rate of erosion for each parcel rather than a set 40-foot distance from the highest high tide line. (I) (IP)

Malibu Land Use and Local Implementation Plans: Malibu, California 1) requires new coastal development to be set back as far as possible and elevated above the base Flood Elevation; 2) prohibits new shoreline armoring/hardening for new development; and 3) requires an impact report and analysis for all new development that addresses future SLR among other factors. (I) (IP)

The Need for Storm Recovery Plans, Cape Lookout National Seashore, North Carolina: Following the impacts of Hurricane Irene in August 2011, the National Park Service identified a need for post-storm recovery plans and policies regarding storm damage and rebuilding in high risk areas in order to avoid reactionary decision making and manage public expectations about access. (I) (AW, PL)

Quantifying the Success of Buyout Programs in Staten Island, New York: The project evaluated the change in vulnerability of people and property to coastal flood hazards following Superstorm Sandy (including exposure and social vulnerability) by analyzing exposure and social vulnerability of buyout participants; the report also makes recommendations for how to increase program efficacy. (I) (SH)
 

Flood Resilience - A Basic Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities: User-friendly tool from the EPA that includes embedded videos and maps to help communities evaluate vulnerability to flooding and identify options to protect valuable assets. (I)

A Guide to Assessing Green Infrastructure Costs and Benefits for Flood Reduction: Guide that lays out a six-step watershed-based approach for documenting the costs of flooding, projecting increased flooding and associated costs under future land use and climate conditions, and calculating the long-term benefits and costs of a green infrastructure approach. (I)

Canadian Extreme Water Level Adaptation Tool (CAN-EWLAT): A science-based planning tool for climate change adaptation of coastal infrastructure related to future water-level extremes and changes in wave climate. The tool includes two main components

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency, wave action Impact(s): -Saltwater intrusion -Increasing coastal flooding, erosion, and shoreline change Protect vulnerable high-value infrastructure with hardening meaures where necessary (e.g., seawalls, bulkheads, riprap) Blue Plains Wastewater Facility in Washington DC Reinforces Facility Against Floods: The facility built a sea wall that will protect it facility from riverine flooding and storm surge during a 1-500 year storm. (I) (IP) It said "1,500-year storm" which didn't make any sense to me, and on the case study website it says "1-500 year storm"
 
Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H, I) The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Infrastructure Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal erosion and shoreline change -Saltwater intrusion Use “soft-engineering” techniques, living shorelines, and/or natural infrastructure to enhance or mimic natural buffers that slow coastal erosion Restoring Natural Dunes to Enhance Coastal Protection: Following Hurricane Sandy in 2012, neighborhoods that were inland of intact dune systems sustained less damage than those that abutted developed beaches, highlighting the value of natural dune restoration as a cost-effective way to increase the resilience of both the ecosystem and adjacent coastal communities. (H, I) (SH)

Preserving Wetlands to Increase Climate Resilience in New Orleans, Louisiana: This project focused on conservation and restoration of wetlands using a combination of methods (e.g., dredged material, water control structures, levees) in order to provide a buffer zone between the Gulf of Mexico and the city following Hurricane Katrina. (I, H) (IP)

Oyster Reef Breakwater Restoration Project on Alabama’s Gulf Coast: This project focused on restoring oyster reef habitat in Mobile County, Alabama, with the goal of stabilizing eroding shorelines while also creating jobs and enhancing nursery habitat for oysters and fish. (H, S) (IP)

San Francisco Bay Living Shorelines Project: This pilot project is focused on restoration of subtidal habitats (eelgrass, oyster reefs), followed by evaluation to determine whether restoration benefits adjacent habitats. (H) (AS, PL)

South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Restoration of tidal wetlands in San Francisco, California to provide a natural buffer against the effects of sea level rise, coastal flooding, and erosion, while also maintaining and/or improving water quality, wildlife habitat, and recreation/public access. (H, S) (IP, IT, EV)

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H, I)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2). (H, I)
 

City of West Vancouver Shoreline Protection Plan, British Columbia: Pilot projects demonstrate coastal-engineering and habitat-enhancement strategies to restore sites to a more natural state and provide self-sustaining, soft-armoring measures. (H, I)

Greening Shorelines to Enhance Resilience Adapting to Sea Level Rise, British Columbia: Advancing coastal protection policies and practices. Evaluates the performance and cost-effectiveness of soft shore armoring measures. (H, I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: Web-based mapping tool that enables visualization of sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)
 

Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Impaired water quality Consider assisted evolution (e.g., "seed" vulnerable areas with spores from temperature-resilient populations) While there are no documented case studies of this technique applied for kelp species, research in assisted evolution of coral species is well documented and may be applicable. For example, the Australian Institute of Marine Science has a description of this technique applied to coral reefs.:
 
 
Kelp Forest General resilience Demonstrate the value of ecosystem services provided by kelp forests to increase support for restoration by local communities Installing Kelp Forests/Seaweed Beds for Mitigation and Adaptation Against Global Warming: The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea, and is being implemented to promote the removal of carbon via marine forests. (O) (IP)
 
Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (MESP): This website provides a database of valuation studies, methodologies, webinars and other training resources, and links to case studies related to ecosystem services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. (H)
 
Kelp Forest General resilience Encourage collaborative, multi-sector ocean governance and marine spatial planning to manage for multiple stressors and protect refugia Incorporating Climate Change in Marine Use Plans for British Columbia’s First Nations: A partnership between the government of British Columbia and First Nations to integrate climate change into marine use plans for the North Pacific Coast. (H, C) (AW, PL).
 
Collaboration – Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future. (H, I)
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Altered currents and mixing Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increased turbidity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Changing water chemistry -Changing larval transport and dispersal Identify and protect potential refugia Identifying Potential Marine Climate Change Refugia in Canada’s Pacific Marine Ecosystems: This research project areas (there is a word missing, possibly "focuses on") in the northeastern Pacific where sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and chlorophyll a (DELETE THIS "A") are stable or changing slowly, which may indicate potential climate refugia. (H) (AS)

Deep-water Kelp Refugia as Potential Hotspots of Tropical Marine Diversity and Productivity, Ecuador: Using an oceanographic and ecophysiological model, deep-water tropical kelp populations were discovered off the Galapagos Islands and may serve as deep-water kelp refugia. (S) (AS)
 

Rise of Turfs – A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests (Filbee-Dexter & Wernberg 2018): This article describes the global trend of kelp loss and turf algae dominance, and suggests mechanisms to curb global losses. (H)
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Altered currents and mixing Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increased turbidity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Changing water chemistry -Changing larval transport and dispersal Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for kelp forests and associated species Incorporating Climate Change in Marine Use Plans for British Columbia’s First Nations: A partnership between the government of British Columbia and First Nations to integrate climate change into marine use plans for the North Pacific Coast. (H, C) (AW, PL).
 
Effects of Climate Change on Global Seaweed Communities: A review of climate-related impacts to seaweeds in terms of their physiology, growth, reproduction, and survival, which considers the extent to which seaweed species may be able to respond to these changes via adaptation or migration. (H)

Ocean Acidification 2.0: Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry

OA Action Plan Toolkit: Published by the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, this toolkit was created to support the development of action plans that support increased ability to understand and respond to the threat of ocean acidification. (H, S)
 

Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Impaired water quality Increase allowable urchin harvest to reduce grazing pressure during times of suboptimal oceanographic conditions Fish and Game Commission Adopts Emergency Regulations to Increase Purple Sea Urchin Bag Limit in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties: The California Fish and Game Commission adopted a bag limit on purple sea urchins in 2018 due to a recent explosion in urchin populations off the coast of northern California; this represents one of several extreme environmental conditions contributing to a widespread collapse of kelp forests. (S) (IP)
 
Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: state of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource. (S) Rise of Turfs
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Altered currents and mixing Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increased turbidity -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Changing water chemistry -Changing larval transport and dispersal Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management The Noyo Center for Marine Science "Help the Kelp" Campaign, California: This program educates the community about the dramatic loss of kelp in Northern California, and provides opportunities to volunteer, donate, support climate change legislation, and spread the word. (S) (AW)
 
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Impaired water quality Increase monitoring of kelp canopy to enhance understanding of the relationship between oceanographic conditions and kelp abundance Kelp Protection and Recovery: The Northwest Straits Commission's regional bull kelp survey is leveraging partnerships to conduct kayak-based surveys of local populations and aerial imagery from a volunteer pilot. (S) (AS, IP)
 
Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: state of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource. (S)
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Altered currents and mixing Impact(s): -Changing larval transport and dispersal Increase research on zoospore/larval transport to better understand potential impacts of altered currents and mixing on recruitment and persistence of kelp and key kelp forest species   Macroalgal Spore Dispersal in Coastal Environments – Mechanistic Insights Revealed by Theory and Experiment (Gaylord et al. 2006): This article uses theoretical and experimental approaches to examine spore dispersal in Macrocystis, which influences propagule supply, population connectivity, and inbreeding. (H, S)
 
Kelp Forest General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species   Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen -Impaired water quality Protect/restore remnant habitat, particularly larger areas and those with high structural complexity and biodiversity Channel Islands Marine Protected Areas, California: After 10 years of kelp forest protection via MPA network, biomass and abundance of fish increased; this indicates protected systems may be more resilient to future climate impacts. (H) (EV) Kelp Forest Restoration Project
 
Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: State of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource. (S) Rise of Turfs
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Reduce coastal and nearshore pollutants (e.g., nutrient inputs, wastewater effluent) by regulating harmful compounds   Intervention Options to Accelerate Ecosystem Recovery From Coastal Eutrophication: Review article that discusses broad, comprehensive approaches to control eutrophication at an ecosystem scale. (H)

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H) OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool
 

Kelp Forest General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Channel Islands Marine Protected Areas, California: After 10 years of kelp forest protection via MPA network, biomass and abundance of fish increased; this indicates protected systems may be more resilient to future climate impacts. (H) (EV) Kelp Forest Restoration Project
 
Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: State of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource. (S) Rise of Turfs
 
Kelp Forest General resilience Support the recovery of lost or degraded keystone species (e.g., sea otter, giant sea bass) Sea Otter Reintroduction, Oregon: The Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Laboratory is assessing the ecological feasibility of sea otter reintroduction by identifying suitable sea otter habitat and determining potential impacts of sea otter predation. (S) (AS)
 
 
Kelp Forest Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and increased turbidity Utilize best management practices in human land-use areas to reduce freshwater inflow and sediment loading Improving water quality on the Great Barrier Reef: Greening Australia is working with landowners, communities, and indigenous groups to rebuild eroding gullies and restore coastal wetlands, which together can prevent 400,000 tons of sediment from entering the reef each year; these efforts can be replicated in other systems. (H) (IP)

Applying Green Infrastructure to Stem Runoff and Safeguard Puerto Rico’s Corals: The community, watershed managers, government agencies and nonprofit organizations green infrastructure practices to absorb excess water and reduce overall sediment loads overall sediment loads in Playa Tamarindo's nearshore habitats, including mangrove forests. (H) (IP)
 

OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool: Broadly applicable tool used to investigate potential water quality impacts from development, other land uses, and climate change. This tool simulates erosion, pollution, and their accumulation from overland flow. (H)

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan. (H)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Anticipate and facilitate inland/upland migration through site assessment, acquisition, and management (e.g., development setbacks, barrier removal) Mapping Mangrove Migration in the Everglades, Florida: This project used a series of models to map inland mangrove migration under future sea level rise scenarios. (H) (AS)
 
Sea Level Rise Viewer: This web-based mapping tool by NOAA allows users to visualize sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM): Advanced modeling tool that simulates changes in physical processes of tidal wetlands and beaches (e.g., inundation, erosion, accretion, salinity) in the U.S. in response to projected sea level rise and storm surge; also includes Dynamic Marsh Management Tool that helps managers evaluate the costs and benefits of adapation strategies as well as Roads and Infrastructure Simulations that assist with the identification of flooding risk. (H, I)

Managed Retreat Toolkit: This toolkit, provided by the Georgetown Climate Center, provides information on legal and policy tools, best and emerging practices, and case studies to support learning and decision-making around managed retreat of people and ecosystems. (H, I)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest General resilience Demonstrate the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves to increase support for restoration by local communities Gulf of California Mangrove Ecosystem Services: This project focused on quantifying the economic value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves in Baja California to the region's fisheries, in order to to inform coastal planning and policy that will ultimately reduce mangrove habitat loss. (H) (AW, AS)

Coastal Risk and Resilience in Mexico: The Nature Conservancy is collaborating with the private sector, governments and communities in Mexico Caribbean to increase investment and local capacity for mangrove restoration, which is driven by a demonstration of how these ecosystems protect the coast as well as creation of the tools, know-how and local capacities to restore and conserve them. (H) (AW, PL) Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems in Ciénaga de la Virgen, Columbia. The EbA program in Colombia is working with the Mayor's office, the Botanical Gardens, local NGOs and communities in the implementation of pilot projects for the restoration of mangroves in particularly vulnerable areas of the coastal lake of Ciénaga de la Virgen. (H) (PL,IP)
 

The Global Value of Mangroves for Risk Reduction: This report, published by the Nature Conservancy, uses hydrodynamic and economic models to quantify the value of coastal flood protection services provided by mangroves globally, and provides information about specific areas where these benefits provide the most value to people and property (H, I)

Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (MESP): This website provides a database of valuation studies, methodologies, webinars and other training resources, and links to case studies related to ecosystem services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. (H)

Mapping Ocean Wealth: Website that includes resources such as the Atlas of Ocean Wealth, a collection of information about the economic, social, and cultural value of marine and coastal habitats across the globe; site also includes examples and tools specific to topics such as coastal flood protection, blue carbon, fisheries, recreation/tourism, and restoration prioritization. (H, I)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Altered sediment flow -Changing salinity conditions -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Identify and protect resilient habitat areas that may provide refugia (e.g., mangroves adjacent to rivers/streams that provide sediment sources, areas buffered from storm surge by barrier islands) Restoration of Mangroves in the Sian Ka‘an Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: This project took an ecosystem-based approach to adaptation where community involvement was used to address water flow changes due to new roadway in reserve. (H, I) (AW, PL)
 
Sea Level Rise Viewer: This web-based mapping tool by NOAA allows users to visualize sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 
Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Altered sediment flow -Changing salinity conditions -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for mangroves/coastal forests and associated species Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Protected Area Management Plan, Brazil: Climate change risks and ecosystem-based adaptation measures have been incorporated into the protected area's management plan. (H) (AW, PL)
 
Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges. (H) Threats to Mangroves From Climate Change and Adaptation Options

Sea Level Rise Viewer: This web-based mapping tool by NOAA allows users to visualize sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Incorporate consideration of sea level rise into coastal zone development and land-use policies (e.g., permitting, incentive programs) City of Duque de Caxias, Brazil Master Plan: The city's master plan considers services and climate vulnerabilities of mangroves and other ecosystems while addressing municipal vulnerability to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. (I, C) (AW, PL).

An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: An analysis of climate-related impacts on coastal zones in the Gulf of Mexico and recommendations to build support for a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H, I) (AW, AS)
 

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders. (H,I)

Sea Level Rise Viewer: This web-based mapping tool by NOAA allows users to visualize sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Altered sediment flow -Changing salinity conditions -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management Protecting Shell Mound Sites from SLR and Erosion, Canaveral National Seashore, Florida: This project is focused on documenting and protecting prehistoric shell mounds in and around tidal wetlands and mangrove forests; community engagement includes hands-on experience with archeology, building oyster mats, and planting living shorelines, which increases awareness of the effects of climate change on cultural resources. (C) (AS, IP, SH) Community-Based Ecological-Hydrological Mangrove Restoration, Thailand
 
Sea Level Rise Viewer: This web-based mapping tool by NOAA allows users to visualize sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 
Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Altered sediment flow -Changing salinity conditions Maintain/restore natural hydrologic connectivity with upland systems Responding to Climate Change Through Sustainable Responsible Fishing and Mangrove Rehabilitation: CONANP Mexico created a community-driven participatory management strategy based on strengthening the sense of identity and belonging of the communities as a central part of the La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve. Fishing communities were directly involved in the rehabilitation and maintenance of mangrove ecosystems and hydrological flows, which contribute to the improvement of local fisheries. (H, S) (AW, IP).

Restoration of Mangroves and Hydrological Flows, Mexico: The restoration of hydrologic connectivity was used to restore mangrove forests as part of a strategy to adapt to numerous climate impacts, including reduced rainfall (H, I, C) (AS, PL, IP)

Community-Based Ecological-Hydrological Mangrove Restoration, Thailand: The mangrove action plan works with the community and historic data to restore natural hydrology, which encourages natural recolonization and restoration of mangroves. While the goal of this project is not to mitigate temperature increases, the reestablishment of both historic hydrological flow and mangrove canopy may have that effect. (H, S, C ) (AW, PL, IP)
 

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges. (H) Threats to Mangroves From Climate Change and Adaptation Options

Manual on Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation; focused on the Philippines but applicable to other locations. (H)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species Responding to Climate Change Through Sustainable Responsible Fishing and Mangrove Rehabilitation: CONANP Mexico created a community-driven participatory management strategy based on strengthening the sense of identity and belonging of the communities as a central part of the La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve. Fishing communities were directly involved in the rehabilitation and maintenance of mangrove ecosystems and hydrological flows, which contribute to the improvement of local fisheries. (H, S) (AW, IP).
 
Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Protect/restore habitat areas with high structural complexity and biodiversity Building Tarquinas in the Biosphere Reserve of Sian Ka’an, Mexico: Structural complexity and biodiversity was increased by constructing "tarquinas," islands of sediment that encourage new mangrove colonization and growth. While this project was not undertaken with the goal of reducing water temperatures, the increased shading provided by the canopy of a diverse mangrove forest may have this effect. (H,S) (AW, IP)

Responding to Climate Change Through Sustainable Responsible Fishing and Mangrove Rehabilitation: CONANP Mexico created a a community-driven participatory management strategy for the central part of the La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, which includes some of the best preserved mangrove forests on the American Pacific. Fishing communities were directly involved in the rehabilitation and maintenance of mangrove ecosystems and hydrological flows, which contribute to the improvement of local fisheries and strengthens community self-organization. (H,S) (AW, IP).
 

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges. (H) Threats to Mangroves From Climate Change and Adaptation Options

Manual on Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation; focused on the Philippines but applicable to other locations. (H)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns Impact(s): -Flashier rain events and longer dry periods -Altered sediment flow -Changing salinity conditions Reduce coastal and nearshore pollutants (e.g., nutrient inputs, wastewater effluent) by regulating harmful compounds Increasing Awareness and Resilience of Coastal Wetlands and Reefs in Quintana Roo, Mexico: This conservation program is focused on improving water quality (e.g., by stopping the use of shallow well injections that release polluted water) to increase climate resilience of coastal wetlands, mangroves, and coral reefs within the region. (H) (PL)
 
Intervention Options to Accelerate Ecosystem Recovery From Coastal Eutrophication: Review article that discusses broad, comprehensive approaches to control eutrophication at an ecosystem scale. (H)

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H) OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes    
Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Use “soft-engineering” techniques, living shorelines, and/or natural infrastructure to enhance or mimic natural buffers that slow coastal erosion Protecting Shell Mound Sites from SLR and Erosion, Canaveral National Seashore, Florida: This project is focused on documenting prehistoric shell mounds in and around tidal wetlands and mangrove forests, and includes on-the-ground protection and erosion stabilization measures using a combination of living shorelines (oyster restoration) and soft armoring (planting native cordgrass and mangroves). (C) (AS, IP, SH)

Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project on Carey Island, Malaysia: This assessment describes a submerged detached breakwater system constructed to dampen wave energy and trap sediment near endangered mangroves, resulting in increased greater (YOU ONLY NEED ONE OF THESE WORDS) sediment accretion and improvements in nutrient concentration, pH value, and salinity that will make the site more suitable for seedlings. (H) (IP, EV)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2). (H, I)
 

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges. (H) Threats to Mangroves from Climate Change and Adaptation Options

Sea Level Rise Viewer: This web-based mapping tool by NOAA allows users to visualize sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding along the U.S. coast under several future climate scenarios; information is also available on likely marsh migration, social and economic data, and uncertainty associated with climate change projections. (H, I)
 

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Use climate-appropriate species in restoration efforts    
Pelagic General resilience Develop new fisheries (e.g., squid, jellies) that could reduce pressure on those that are vulnerable to decline Turning an Invasive Crab into a Delicacy: The University of New Hampshire and Manomet are partnering to create a market for green crabs, which are thriving in warmer New England waters where they damage eelgrass beds and existing fisheries. Though not specific to pelagic habitats, this is an example of facilitating change in market demand to favor a now abundant species. (H, S) (PL)
 
 
Pelagic General resilience Encourage collaborative, multi-sector ocean governance and marine spatial planning to manage for multiple stressors and protect refugia New York Ocean Action Plan: This plan is a collaborative effort to manage the state’s coastal, estuarine, and ocean waters, from New York City to Montauk Point out to the edge of the outer continental shelf. Goals include increasing the resilience of ocean resources to climate-related impacts, and the plan includes several actions specific to climate change such as conducting vulnerability assessments and implementing sustainable sediment management options. (H, S, I) (PL)

Fostering Fisheries Management Efficiency Through Collaboration Networks: The Kanan Kay Alliance in the Mexican Caribbean is a voluntary, multi-stakeholder collaborative network that established a work plan focused on the establishment of fish refuges (no-take zones), enhancing a shared vision and communication around the efficient use of limited resources. (S) (AW, PL)

Incorporating Climate Change in Marine Use Plans for British Columbia’s First Nations: A partnership between the government of British Columbia and First Nations to integrate climate change into marine use plans for the North Pacific Coast. (H, C) (AW, PL)
 

 
Pelagic Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Increasing storm frequency/severity -Changing ENSO/PDO -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): - Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms - Changes in water chemistry - Increasing turbidity - Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs Identify and protect potential refugia Identifying Potential Marine Climate Change Refugia in Canada’s Pacific Marine Ecosystems: This research project areas (I believe we are missing a words between "project" and "areas", possible "focuses on", "analyzes", etc.) in the northeastern Pacific where sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and chlorophyll a are stable or changing slowly, which may indicate potential climate refugia. (H) (AS) Fisheries and Inter-Sectoral Collaboration in Quintana Roo, Mexico
 
 
Pelagic Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Increasing storm frequency/severity -Changing ENSO/PDO -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): - Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms - Changes in water chemistry - Increasing turbidity - Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs Incorporate consideration of climate change into stock assessments and management plans (e.g., adjust fisheries' catch limits based on changes in age ranges/fecundity/development) Resilience and Adaptation of a Coastal Ecological-Economic System in Response to Increasing Temperature, Gulf of Maine: This project aims to increase understanding about how warming and abrupt temperature changes impact marine ecosystems and fisheries, with a focus on relevance to lobster fisheries. (H, S) (AS)

Bering Sea Climate Change Study: Researchers are created downscaled climate models to estimate future abundance of commercially and ecologically important fish stocks in the Bering Sea, with the goal of facilitating climate-informed fisheries management in the region. (S) (AS)

Increasing Resilience Through NOAA Fisheries’ Regional Action Plans: NOAA Fisheries collaborated with stakeholders, fishery management councils and organizations, and tribes to create Regional Action Plans that provide guidance and tools to manage climate impacts on fish stocks, fishing-dependent communities, and protected species. (S) (PL)

Using a Precautionary Approach to Manage North Pacific Fisheries Under Uncertainty: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted a precautionary approach for fisheries within the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, and the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas by prohibiting all commercial fishing activities within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Alaska until better science becomes available. (S) (AS)

Effect of Climate Change on Highly Migratory Tunas and Billfishes in the Gulf of Mexico: This collaborative project models climate change effects on fish population dynamics and spawning habitat, with the goal of enhancing management plans for these important fishery species. (S) (AS)

Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: This project applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes. (S) (AS)
 

Projecting Future Changes in Distributions of Pelagic Fish Species of Northeast Pacific Shelf Seas: Predicts current species distribution ranges and projected range shifts of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf sea. (S)

The State of Climate Adaptation in U.S. Marine Fisheries Management: Highlights a variety of case studies, including pelagic examples. (H,S)

OceanAdapt webtool: Collates data on shifts in marine species distributions over time (focus on commercial and recreational species). (S)
 

Pelagic Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Increasing storm frequency/severity -Changing ENSO/PDO -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): - Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms - Changes in water chemistry - Increasing turbidity - Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management Suquamish Build Resilience to Ocean Acidification Through Education: The Suquamish Tribe is working with partners to inform the public about the impacts of changing ocean chemistry on shellfish and fisheries in order to increase support for research and monitoring programs. (H, S) (AW)
 
 
Pelagic Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Increasing storm frequency/severity -Changing ENSO/PDO -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): - Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms - Changes in water chemistry - Increasing turbidity - Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts of climate change on pelagic systems Resilience and Adaptation of a Coastal Ecological-Economic System in Response to Increasing Temperature, Gulf of Maine: This project aims to increase understanding about how warming and abrupt temperature changes impact marine ecosystems and fisheries, with a focus on relevance to lobster fisheries. (H, S) (AS) New Zealand Ocean Acidification Observing Network
 
OceanAdapt webtool: Collates data on shifts in marine species distributions over time (focus on commercial and recreational species). (S)

Pacific Ocean Acidification Working Group, Canada: Identifying practical ways of addressing gaps in monitoring and research, and building capacity and collaboration. (H,S,O)
 

Pelagic General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than management focused on single species Using Ecosystem-Based Management as an Adaptation Strategy in the Pacific Fishery Management Council: In 2013, the Council adopted the use of ecosystem-based management in fishery management plans (FMPs) for offshore waters of Washington, Oregon, and California. (H) (PL)
 
Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Website provides an overview of ecosystem-based management in the context of marine-coastal ecosystems as well as 20 full-length case studies and 45 case snapshots that illustrate various goals, strategies, and cross-cutting issues. (H)
 
Pelagic Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Ocean acidification -Increasing storm frequency/severity -Changing ENSO/PDO -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): - Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms - Changes in water chemistry - Increasing turbidity - Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs Reduce coastal and nearshore pollutants (e.g., nutrient inputs, wastewater effluent) by regulating harmful compounds   EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H) OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool
 
Pelagic General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Protecting Endangered Whales from Ship Strikes in the Santa Barbara Channel, California: The Blue Whales, Blue Skies project is a vessel speed reduction trial incentive program intended to slow cargo ships down to reduce air pollution and increase protection of endangered whales. (S) (IP)

Preparing to Respond to Oil Spills in the Arctic: The U.S. Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) conduct month-long scientific expeditions yearly to demonstrate and evaluate tools, technologies, and techniques for dealing with Arctic oil spills. The Arctic Shield expeditions also conduct simulated oil spills to give crews practice in cleanup procedures. (H) (IT)

Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts in Baja Mexico: Marine reserves increased the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event caused by climate-driven hypoxia. (H) (EV)
 

 
Pelagic Stressor(s): -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Changing water chemistry Support and/or restore primary producers (e.g., surfgrass, seagrass, macroalgae) to locally ameliorate reduced pH Installing Kelp Forests/Seaweed Beds for Mitigation and Adaptation Against Global Warming: The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea, and is being implemented to promote the removal of carbon via marine forests. (O) (IP)
 
Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S) Ocean Acidification Hotspots
 
Pelagic Stressor(s): -Increasing storm frequency/severity -Changing ENSO/PDO -Altered currents and upwelling/mixing Impact(s): - Increasing turbidity - Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs Utilize best management practices in human land-use areas to reduce freshwater inflow and sediment loading Improving water quality on the Great Barrier Reef: Greening Australia is working with landowners, communities, and indigenous groups to rebuild eroding gullies and restore coastal wetlands, which together can prevent 400,000 tons of sediment from entering the reef each year; these efforts can be replicated in other systems. (H) (IP) Modeling Sediment Yield in Hawaii

Gulf of Mexico Regional Sediment Management Master Plan: The Gulf of Mexico Alliance (a partnership between Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) developed this plan to organize and facilitate sediment management policies, with the goal of restoring regional sedimentary processes. (H, P) (PL)
 

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H) OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool
 
Seagrass General resilience Demonstrate the value of ecosystem services provided by seagrass meadows to increase support for restoration Ecosystem Services Returned Through Seagrass Restoration on Virginia's Eastern Shore: Large-scale restoration project in shallow coastal bays has resulted in ecosystem recovery following a disease outbreak and damage from a major hurricane, which has also resulted in increased rates of nitrogen removal and carbon sequestration; quantification of these benefits is likely to increase support for seagrass restoration. (H, O) (IT, EV)
 
Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (MESP): This website provides a database of valuation studies, methodologies, webinars and other training resources, and links to case studies related to ecosystem services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. (H)
 
Seagrass General resilience Eliminate the use of destructive fishing/harvesting practices and boat landings that negatively impact seagrass habitats (e.g., bottom trawling, intertidal dredging in sensitive areas) Tomales Bay Mooring Program: This program represents a partnership between the California State Lands Commission and Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary with the goal of protecting eelgrass beds by providing specific criteria for where moorings will be allowed in the bay, introducing mandatory specifications for mooring tackle, and requiring inspection and maintenance of moorings. (H) (IP)
 
 
Seagrass Stressor(s): -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Facilitate landward/poleward shifts in distribution to track changes inc (delete the "c") climatically suitable areas (e.g., remove barriers to dispersal, restore tidal connectivity in climatically suitable estuaries)    
Seagrass Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms -Hypersaline conditions during dry periods -Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall -Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall -Changing water chemistry -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Identify and protect remnant habitat, including potential climate refugia (e.g., habitat areas that have demonstrated resilience to extreme heat events or other stressors) Predicting Seagrass Locations Off the Coast of Florida: This mapping project demonstrates how known seagrass locations in combination with other indicator variables can be used to identify other areas that are likely to support seagrass habitat, which will aid managers in protecting remnant habitat. (H) (SH)

Increasing Coastal Resilience through Restoration and Education in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: The Save the Bay program is restoring eelgrass beds in Narragansett Bay to provide food and shelter for native flora and fauna. (H) (IP)

Identifying Potential Marine Climate Change Refugia in Canada’s Pacific Marine Ecosystems: This research project areas in the northeastern Pacific where sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and chlorophyll a are stable or changing slowly, which may indicate potential climate refugia. (H) (AS)
 

Nearshore Eelgrass Habitat Mapping in the Salish Sea: Mapping effort undertaken from 2012–2014, which improves knowledge about habitat location, provides baseline data, and helps focus conservation efforts on the shorelines and watersheds that have the greatest impact on seagrass habitats. (H) Seagrass Conservation Working Group, British Columbia
 
Seagrass Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms -Hypersaline conditions during dry periods -Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall -Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall -Changing water chemistry -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Incorporate consideration of climate change into management plans for seagrass habitats and associated species Assessing Seagrass Vulnerability Along Florida's Gulf Coast: This project examined projected sea level rise, flooding, and elevation to determine how seagrass habitats may be impacted along an urbanized shoreline; results will inform the development of an integrated management plan that addresses the effect of shoreline hardening on seagrass habitats. (H) (AS)|humboldt Bay Eelgrass Comprehensive Management Plan

Incorporating Climate Change in Marine Use Plans for British Columbia’s First Nations: A partnership between the government of British Columbia and First Nations to integrate climate change into marine use plans for the North Pacific Coast. (H, C) (AW, PL).
 

Managing Seagrasses for Resilience to Climate Change: Report that highlights general vulnerabilities and management options for seagrasses worldwide. (H)
 
Seagrass Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Ocean acidification -Sea level rise -Increasing storm severity/frequency and wave action Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms -Hypersaline conditions during dry periods -Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall -Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall -Changing water chemistry -Increasing coastal flooding, inundation, and erosion Increase education and outreach to improve public awareness of climate impacts and the need for climate-informed management Increasing Coastal Resilience through Restoration and Education in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: The Save the Bay program is restoring eelgrass beds in Narragansett Bay, and has incorporated climate change into their education and public outreach curriculum in order to raise awareness of climate impacts and increase support for efforts to increase coastal resilience. (H) (IP, SH)
 
 
Seagrass General resilience Increase regulation of ballast water management and other activities that may act as vectors for invasive aquatic species    
Seagrass Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature Impact(s): -Heat stress Maintain genetic and genotypic diversity to enhance ecosystem recovery from climate extremes and maximize potential for long-term adaptation to changing conditions Ecosystem Recovery After Climatic Extremes Enhanced by Genotypic Diversity: This research project in the Baltic Sea of Europe documents increased biomass production, seagrass density, and faunal abundance in seagrass beds with higher genotypic diversity, despite near-lethal water temperatures. This suggests that enhancing genotypic diversity in species-poor ecosystems (e.g., seagrass habitats) may support recovery following heat waves and other extreme events. (H, S) (IP)

Risk Reduction and Resiliency Enhancement for the Great Marsh, Massachusetts: Part of the Great Marsh Resiliency Planning Project involved reestablishment of 3 acres of eelgrass in Essex Bay, which involved transplantation to build a diverse population that will be resistant to future stressors. (H) (IP)
 

 
Seagrass Stressor(s): -Increasing water temperature -Altered precipitation patterns -Ocean acidification Impact(s): -Diminishing dissolved oxygen and harmful algal blooms -Hypersaline conditions during dry periods -Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall -Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall -Changing water chemistry Reduce coastal and nearshore pollutants (e.g., nutrient inputs, wastewater effluent) by regulating harmful compounds Seagrass Recovery in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA): A public-private partnership implemented collaborative, watershed-based projects designed to reduce nutrient loading in Tampa Bay, which resulted in recovery of seagrass extent. (H) (IP, EV, SH)
 
Intervention Options to Accelerate Ecosystem Recovery From Coastal Eutrophication: Review article that discusses broad, comprehensive approaches to control eutrophication at an ecosystem scale. (H)

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H) OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool

National Marine Fisheries Service California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy: Compensatory mitigation recommended for the loss of existing eelgrass habitat function, but only after avoidance and minimization of effects to eelgrass have been pursued. The policy includes guidance and suggested actions to reduce the impact of multiple stressors, including turbidity, run-off, and nutrient loading. (H)
 

Seagrass Stressor(s): -Altered precipitation patterns Impact(s): -Hypersaline conditions during dry periods -Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall -Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall Utilize best management practices in human land-use areas to reduce freshwater inflow and sediment loading Improving water quality on the Great Barrier Reef: Greening Australia is working with landowners, communities, and indigenous groups to rebuild eroding gullies and restore coastal wetlands, which together can prevent 400,000 tons of sediment from entering the reef each year; these efforts can be replicated in other systems. (H) (IP)

Gulf of Mexico Regional Sediment Management Master Plan: The Gulf of Mexico Alliance (a partnership between Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) developed this plan to organize and facilitate sediment management policies, with the goal of restoring regional sedimentary processes. (H, P) (PL)
 

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL). (H)

OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool: Broadly applicable tool used to investigate potential water quality impacts from development, other land uses, and climate change. This tool simulates erosion, pollution, and their accumulation from overland flow. (H)

National Marine Fisheries Service California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy: Compensatory mitigation recommended for the loss of existing eelgrass habitat function, but only after avoidance and minimization of effects to eelgrass have been pursued. The policy includes guidance and suggested actions to reduce the impact of multiple stressors, including turbidity, run-off, and nutrient loading. (H)