Adaptation Actions Table

In the table below, information is organized by habitats/locations and potential climate stressors/impacts, followed by suggested actions/options with supporting case studies, tools and resources. You can browse the table or use the search function to find suggestions for adaptation actions that can address specific climate stressors and impacts for a habitat or location. Terms are meant to align with and support the use of the North American Marine Protected Area Rapid Vulnerability Assessment Tool.

Letter codes in parentheses after entries indicate resource focus or stages in the Adaptation Ladder of Engagement.

Resource focus: Habitat/ecosystem (H), Species population (S), Infrastructure (I), Cultural (C), Policy (P), Other (O)

Adaptation Ladder of Engagement: 1.) Awareness (AW), 2.) Assessment (AS), 3.) Planning (PL), 4.) Implementation (IP), 5.) Integration (IT), 6.) Evaluation (EV), 7.) Sharing (SH)

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Habitats/Locations Climate Stressors & Impacts Actions/Options Case Studies Tools & Resources
Beach/Dune Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Erosion and shoreline change

Anticipate and facilitate inland/upland migration (e.g., buffers, setbacks, open space/conservation easements, land acquisition, remove/modify barriers) Coastal Zone Management for SLR in Malibu, California: City’s land-use implementation plan requires setbacks and other measures for all new development. (I) (IP)

State and counties adopting shoreline setback rules due to SLR in Hawaii. (I) (IP)

Responding to Climate Change in New York State: Suggestion of using rolling easements to move structures out of flood-prone areas. (I) (PL)

Managed Retreat at Surfer's Point, Ventura California: Relocating infrastructure, removing rip-rap, restoring the natural beach with beach nourishment, and petitioning for the removal of the nearby Matilija Dam to restore natural sand supply. (I) (IP)

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea-level. (I)

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H,I)

Puget Sound Feeder Bluffs: Coastal erosion as a sediment source and its implications for shoreline management (H,I)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Zone of Mexico: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: This project demonstrates the urgent need to develop an integrated Environmental Strategic Plan with the involvement of government, university sectors, and stakeholders, and to develop a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H,I) (PL)

Hawaiian Islands Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Synthesis: Island and coastal natural resources and ecosystem services vulnerability assessment and adaptation recommendations by stakeholders and experts (H,S,I,C) (PL)

Beach/Dune Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Erosion and shoreline change

Manually raise base elevations (e.g., beach and dune nourishment) Considering Shackleford Banks Renourishment, Cape Lookout National Seashore, North Carolina: Community and Park Service evaluation of the appropriateness of shoreline erosion mitigation along a proposed wilderness area. (H) (PL) Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea level. (I)

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H,I)

Puget Sound Feeder Bluffs: Coastal erosion as a sediment source and its implications for shoreline management (H,I)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Zone of Mexico: An Integrated Ecosystem Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Zone of Mexico: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: This project demonstrates the urgent need to develop an integrated Environmental Strategic Plan with the involvement of government, university sectors, and stakeholders, and to develop a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H,I) (PL)

Hawaiian Islands Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Synthesis: Island and coastal natural resources and ecosystem services vulnerability assessment and adaptation recommendations by stakeholders and experts. (H,S,I,C) (PL)

Beach/Dune Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Erosion and shoreline change

Use “soft-engineering” techniques, restoration and natural infrastructure to increase resilience or replace or mimic natural buffers City of West Vancouver Shoreline Protection Plan, British Columbia: Pilot projects demonstrate coastal-engineering and habitat-enhancement strategies to restore sites to a more natural state and provide self-sustaining, soft-armoring measures. (H, I) (IT)

Aramburu Island Ecological Enhancement Project, San Francisco Bay: Sand and gravel nourishment to reduce shoreline erosion and stabilize beaches. (H) (PL)

Greening Shorelines to Enhance Resilience Adapting to Sea Level Rise, British Columbia: Advancing coastal protection policies and practices. Evaluates the performance and cost-effectiveness of soft shore armoring measures. (I) (IP)

Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program: Restoring multiple barrier islands and protecting cultural resources by recreating sediment transport processes and replacing a portion of sediment lost to dredging and storm impacts (I, C) (IP)

Responding to sea level rise and coastal erosion in Forillon National Park, Quebec: Responding to and anticipating growing impacts from winter storms on shore erosion as and sea coastal ice lessens. (H) (IP)

Valuing coral reefs as shoreline storm protection in Quintana Roo: The Nature Conservancy is pioneering investment in reef conservation for shoreline protection. (H) (PL)

Maintaining tropical beaches with seagrass and algae: Research demonstrating that seagrass and calcifying algae together can help stabilize beach foreshore. (H, S) (PL)

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea-level. (I)

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H,I)

Puget Sound Feeder Bluffs: Coastal erosion as a sediment source and its implications for shoreline management (H,I)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Zone of Mexico: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: This project demonstrates the urgent need to develop an integrated Environmental Strategic Plan with the involvement of government, university sectors, and stakeholders, and to develop a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H,I) (PL)

Hawaiian Islands Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Synthesis: Island and coastal natural resources and ecosystem services vulnerability assessment and adaptation recommendations by stakeholders and experts. (H,S,I,C) (PL)

Beach/Dune Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Erosion and shoreline change

Promote natural accretion (e.g., remove/modify structures that disrupt sediment delivery or contribute to erosion, develop sediment management plans and policies, use sand fencing, revegetate with native species that capture sand, promote feeder bluffs) Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Identifies sediment management opportunities, will inform statewide planning. (H, I) (PL)

Dune Restoration in Northern California: Removing invasive vegetation and restoring native vegetation to make dunes more dynamic and allow migration/ elevation building in response to sea level rise. (H) (IP)

Shoreline and Feeder Bluff Restoration, Washington: Removed 650 ft of old bulkhead to reconnect feeder bluff to the beach, allowing for natural sediment addition and freeing impounded sediment. (H, I) (IP)

Kailua Beach and Dune Management Plan, Hawaii: Model beach management plan considering sand-sharing beach dynamics, community involvement and SLR. (H, I) (IP, SH)

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea-level. (I)

Case Studies of Natural Shoreline Infrastructure in Coastal California: Reviews natural infrastructure approaches to adapt to SLR in California using a series of case studies. (H,I)

Puget Sound Feeder Bluffs: Coastal erosion as a sediment source and its implications for shoreline management (H,I)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Zone of Mexico: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach in the Gulf of Mexico to Support Coastal Zone Management Legislation: This project demonstrates an urgent need to develop an integrated Environmental Strategic Plan with the involvement of government, university sectors, and stakeholders, and to develop a regional coastal zone program and legislation. (H,I) (PL)

Hawaiian Islands Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Synthesis: Island and coastal natural resources and ecosystem services vulnerability assessment and adaptation recommendations by stakeholders and experts. (H,S,I,C) (PL)

Beach/Dune Stressor:
-Increasing air temperatures

Impact:
-Warmer, drier and longer hot periods
-Warmer winters

Increase vegetation (shade and ground) to ameliorate temperature increase for sensitive species (e.g., nesting turtles, birds) Marine Turtles and Communities Adaptation to Climate Change in Junquillal, Costa Rica: Conservación – Baulas del Pacífico program included the monitoring and protection of sea turtle nesting sites. Results demonstrated the role of beach vegetation in maintaining temperature to protect developing turtle eggs from thermal stress. (H, S) (IP) World Wildlife Fund Adaptation to Climate Change Toolkit: Coasts includes adaptation measures that could reduce the vulnerability of sea turtles and their habitats to climate change.(H,S)

Manual de Restauración de Dunas Costeras: Dune management and restoration guidance that takes into account local climatology and acclimation. (H,S)

Beach/Dune Stressor:
-Increasing air temperatures

Impact:
-Warmer, drier and longer hot periods
-Warmer winters

Manage winter erosion due to decreasing sea and shore ice
 
Responding to shore erosion in Forillon National Park, Quebec: Facilities moved and updated to decrease long-term maintenance costs by accommodating a increasingly dynamic shoreline due to SLR and decreasing sea ice. (H, I) (IP) World Wildlife Fund Adaptation to Climate Change Toolkit: Coasts includes adaptation measures that could reduce the vulnerability of sea turtles and their habitats to climate change.(H,S)

Manual de Restauración de Dunas Costeras: Dune management and restoration guidance that takes into account local climatology and acclimation. (H,S)

Beach/Dune Stressor:
-Altered precipitation patterns

Impacts:
-Flashy rain events
-Longer dry periods

Improve stormwater management (e.g., bioswales, permeable pavement, street trees/catchment/storage) Integrated Stormwater Management Plans, Vancouver Canada: Measures adopted include on-site rainfall retention, the re-exposure and naturalization of culverted or buried streams, reduction targets for total impervious area and improved public access to waterways.
(H) (IP)
 
Beach/Dune General resilience Identify and protect refugia Waihe'e Refuge Restoration in Coastal Hawaii: Maui Coastal Land Trust and local community restored wetlands and former cattle lands to cultural and climate refuge. (H, C) (IP) Diagnóstico general de las dunas costeras de México: State of knowledge of coastal dunes, includes threats and managemnt recommendations.
Beach/Dune General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors (e.g., recreational use, extraction) to enhance resilience to climate changes Sand dune restoration in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, British Columbia: Removing invasives allows for open dynamic dune ecosystem to thrive. (H, S) (IP) Diagnóstico general de las dunas costeras de México: State of knowledge of coastal dunes, includes threats and managemnt recommendations.
Beach/Dune General resilience Include climate change in general site management plans Incorporating Climate Change Response into a General Management Plan, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: Provides adaptation approaches for both natural resources and cultural assets. (H, C) (AS, PL) Diagnóstico general de las dunas costeras de México: State of knowledge of coastal dunes, includes threats and managemnt recommendations.
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Inundation

Stabilize cliffs (e.g., climate-informed native species revegetation, natural netting, species-informed hardening) Coastal cliff stabilization techniques in the UK: Case study information for 14 sites across the U.K. that have applied varying cliff stabilization techniques. (H) (IP) European Climate Adaptation Platform - Cliff Stabilisation: Provides a description of cliff stabilization techniques and important considerations.

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea level (I)

The Climate Technology Centre provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities.

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Inundation

Use “soft-engineering” techniques and/or natural infrastructure to replenish or mimic natural buffers (e.g., restoring offshore reefs/kelp forests to attenuate waves) Giant Kelp Restoration in Southern California: 45 acres of kelp forest have been restored in response to long-term decline, primarily via urchin removals. (H) (IP) European Climate Adaptation Platform - Cliff Stabilisation: Provides a description of cliff stabilization techniques and important considerations.

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea level (I)

The Climate Technology Centre provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities.

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Inundation

Remove structures meant to harden coastal cliffs, and allow natural cliff erosion (e.g., buffers, setbacks, open space/conservation easements, land acquisition) Bluff Restoration in Washington State: 650 ft of bulkhead removed to reconnect coastal bluffs to the beach, allowing for natural sediment processes. (H, I) (IP) European Climate Adaptation Platform - Cliff Stabilisation: Provides a description of cliff stabilization techniques and important considerations.

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: eExplores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea level (I)

The Climate Technology Centre provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities.

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Inundation

Improve coastal zone development and management policy to better accommodate sea level rise Coastal Zone Management Legislation in the Gulf of Mexico: An analysis of climate-related impacts on coastal zones in the Gulf of Mexico and recommendations to build support for coastal zone legislation. (O) (AW, AS) European Climate Adaptation Platform - Cliff Stabilisation: Provides a description of cliff stabilization techniques and important considerations.

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea level (I)

The Climate Technology Centre provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities.

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Inundation

Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts on cliff and rocky shores. Climate Change Impacts on Cliff Instability and Erosion in the UK: This assessment applied climate projections to a cliff erosion model to identify the probable impacts of climate change on cliff recession, and produce recommendations. (H) (AS) European Climate Adaptation Platform - Cliff Stabilisation: Provides a description of cliff stabilization techniques and important considerations.

Adaptation Toolkit: Sea level rise and coastal land use: Explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea level (I)

The Climate Technology Centre provides a description of coastal setbacks, including advantages, disadvantages, requirements, barriers and opportunities.

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor:
- Increasing air temperatures
- Increasing water temperature

 

Restore and enhance shade-providing species (e.g., surfgrass, macroalgae) While this action is quite novel, the Fucus Restoration project at the University of California, Santa Cruz is field testing a methodology that will efficiently and effectively lead to recovery of an intertidal alga in areas that were damaged by the Cosco Busan oil spill. (S) (AS)  
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor:
- Increasing air temperatures
- Increasing water temperature

 

Understand ecosystem and species response to long-term warming and abrupt temperature changes Resilience and Adaptation of a Coastal Ecological-Economic System in Response to Increasing Temperature, Gulf of Maine: Project aims to understand how warming and abrupt temperature changes impact marine ecosystems and fisheries with focus on lobster (e.g., impacts on groundfish). (H, S) (AS)  
Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impacts:
- Changing water chemistry

Support/restore primary producers (surfgrass, seagrass, macroalgae) to locally mitigate reduced pH. The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea to promote the removal of CO2 via marine forests. (O) (IP) Biophysical feedbacks mediate carbonate chemistry in coastal ecosystems across spatiotemporal gradients: This research study of 57 tide pools from southern California to central Oregon documented the effect of surfgrass and macroalgae in increasing pH and calcification rates.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws details policy options by which local and state governments—as opposed to federal and international bodies—can reduce these local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Cliff/Rocky Shore Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impacts:
- Changing water chemistry

Monitor pH and associated impacts to increase understanding of ocean acidification in the rocky intertidal. Channel Islands National Park monitors pH and populations of several key species to better understand the impacts of ocean acidification on the rocky intertidal habitat. (H) (IP) Biophysical feedbacks mediate carbonate chemistry in coastal ecosystems across spatiotemporal gradients: This research study of 57 tide pools from southern California to central Oregon documented the effect of surfgrass and macroalgae in increasing pH and calcification rates.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws details policy options by which local and state governments—as opposed to federal and international bodies—can reduce these local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Cliff/Rocky Shore General resilience Identify and protect refugia Identifying potential marine climate change refugia: A case study in Canada’s Pacific marine ecosystems identified areas where physical conditions are stable or changing slowly as an approach to assess potential climate refugia. (H) (AS) Restoring rocky intertidal habitats in Santa Monica Bay (Ambrose 2004) describes restoration options for the rocky intertidal: (1) reducing the trampling of intertidal organisms, (2) reducing the handling of intertidal organisms, (3) reducing the collection of intertidal organisms, and (4) active restoration of target species (accompanied by the protection of these species from further impacts).
Cliff/Rocky Shore General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes (e.g., human visitation in vulnerable areas) Santa Monica Bay Restoration Plan Update provides progress on a number of strategies to reduce local stressors to the bay, including rocky intertidal, such as reducing visitation and runoff. (H) (IP) Restoring rocky intertidal habitats in Santa Monica Bay (Ambrose 2004) describes restoration options for the rocky intertidal: (1) reducing the trampling of intertidal organisms, (2) reducing the handling of intertidal organisms, (3) reducing the collection of intertidal organisms, and (4) active restoration of target species (accompanied by the protection of these species from further impacts).
Cliff/Rocky Shore General resilience Improve climate-informed coastal zone development and management policy. Conserving California's Coastal Habitats found 58% of the state's rocky intertidal habitat is vulnerable to 5 ft of sea level rise, and identifies a number of coastal management strategies to increase habitat resilience. (H) (AS) Restoring rocky intertidal habitats in Santa Monica Bay (Ambrose 2004) describes restoration options for the rocky intertidal: (1) reducing the trampling of intertidal organisms, (2) reducing the handling of intertidal organisms, (3) reducing the collection of intertidal organisms, and (4) active restoration of target species (accompanied by the protection of these species from further impacts).
Cliff/Rocky Shore General resilience Increase and improve public awareness through education, outreach and involvement LiMPETS (Long-term monitoring program and experiential training for students) is a California citizen science program that monitors the rocky intertidal and helps youth develop a scientific understanding of the ocean. (H) (AW, AS) Restoring rocky intertidal habitats in Santa Monica Bay (Ambrose 2004) describes restoration options for the rocky intertidal: (1) reducing the trampling of intertidal organisms, (2) reducing the handling of intertidal organisms, (3) reducing the collection of intertidal organisms, and (4) active restoration of target species (accompanied by the protection of these species from further impacts).
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality

Maintain streamflow to mitigate temperature increases Restoration of streamflow and hydrology in Massachusetts: Tool developed to identify wetland habitats with altered hydrology and recommend restoration action. While this project was not designed to specifically address maintaining streamflow to mitigate temperature increases, this is considered one potential benefit of the project. (H, I) (PL) EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change.

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality

Manage coastal runoff (stormwater, wastewater, nutrients) to reduce cumulative stress Suffolk County Harmful Algal Bloom Action Plan, New York: Action plan developed with the aim of addressing hypoxia and HABs in Long Island Sound by addressing nutrient loading and coastal runoff. (H, I) (AS, PL).

Green Streets Program, San Francisco: A comprehensive program to reduce urban runoff into the San Francisco Bay estuary (H, I) (AW, IP).

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality

Restore natural tidal and hydrologic regimes (e.g., water exchange, flow rates) Community-based ecological-hydrological mangrove restoration, Thailand: The mangrove action plan works with the community and historic data to restore natural hydrology, which encourages natural recolonization and restoration of mangroves. While the goal of this project is not to mitigate temperature increases, the reestablishment of both historic hydrological flow and mangrove canopy may have that effect. (H, S,C ) (AW, PL, IP).

Restoring logging-damaged creeks for salmon in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia: Many partners including First Nation, community, youth and Parks Canada were involved. (H, S) (IP)

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality

Protect/restore vegetation structural complexity and biodiversity Maidford River Saltmarsh Restoration: Middletown, Rhode Island: Native vegetation biodiversity and structural complexity was restored through the removal of invasive species and the addition of sediment to make up for lost accretion. While the goal of the project was general restoration, improved vegetation complexity, which provides shading, and increased marsh height, which prevents intertidal stagnation, can lead to lower marsh water temperatures. (H, S) (IP).

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change 

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Wave action
-Storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
-Coastal erosion

Use “soft-engineering” techniques and/or natural infrastructure to replenish or mimic natural buffers South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, California: Restoring tidal marsh for coastal protection, as well as habitat, recreation, and water quality services (H) (AS, PL)

Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Wetlands in the Gulf of Mexico: Establishing stabilizing barriers and buffer zones around wetlands, restoration, and other actions (H) (AW, AS)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model: This mathematical model uses digital elevation data and other information to simulate potential impacts of long-term sea level rise on wetlands and shorelines.

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. This project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats.

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan.

Collaboration: Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Wave action
-Storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
-Coastal erosion

Promote natural accretion (e.g., remove/modify structures that disrupt sediment delivery or contribute to erosion/inundation, develop sediment management plans and policies, protect/restore natural tidal connectivity and hydrologic regimes) Nisqually River Restoration Project, Washington: Estuary restoration efforts include dike removal to restore tidal flow to marsh (H, S) (IP, EV)

Giacomini Wetlands Restoration, California: Wetland restoration efforts following agricultural diking (H, S) (PL, IP)

Salmon Creek Delta, California: Modifying tide gates and restoring tidal channels to restore tidal and hydrologic connectivity and natural accretion (S, I) (EV)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model: This mathematical model uses digital elevation data and other information to simulate potential impacts of long-term sea level rise on wetlands and shorelines.

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats.

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan.

Collaboration: Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Wave action
-Storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
-Coastal erosion

Manually enhance base elevations (e.g., add sediment) Wetland restoration in Jamaica Bay, New York: Added sediment to the marsh surface using various experimental methods to restore elevation in a degraded urban salt marsh (H) (EV)

Marsh restoration in Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland: Thin-layer deposition method to spray dredged material over existing salt marsh surface to increase elevation and provide plant resiliency, combating rising sea levels at the site. (H) (IP)

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model: This mathematical model uses digital elevation data and other information to simulate potential impacts of long-term sea level rise on wetlands and shorelines.

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats.

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan.

Collaboration: Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future.

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Wave action
-Storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
-Coastal erosion

Facilitate inland/upland migration (e.g., protect and/or purchase land, remove migration barriers, restore upland marsh) Landward Migration Zone Mapping, Oregon: Mapped migration zones for 23 estuaries/tidal marshes in Oregon under six sea level rise scenarios, and provided prioritization framework for protection (H) (AS) Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model: This mathematical model uses digital elevation data and other information to simulate potential impacts of long-term sea level rise on wetlands and shorelines.

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats.

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan.

Collaboration: Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Wave action
-Storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
-Coastal erosion

Protect/restore habitat structural complexity and biodiversity Pilots for the restoration of mangrove ecosystems in Ciénaga de la Virgen (Cartagena, Colombia): Restore mangroves for coastal protection from storms and sea level rise (H) (PL, IP) Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model: This mathematical model uses digital elevation data and other information to simulate potential impacts of long-term sea level rise on wetlands and shorelines.

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats.

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan.

Collaboration: Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future.

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Wave action
-Storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
-Coastal erosion

Improve coastal zone development and management policy to better accommodate sea level rise The San Francisco Bay Plan, California: A comprehensive interagency plan to address sea level rise and other climate stressors that is being implemented by the Bay Conservation and Development Commission through planning, mitigation, and permitting. (H, I) (PL, IP). Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model: This mathematical model uses digital elevation data and other information to simulate potential impacts of long-term sea level rise on wetlands and shorelines.

Flood Control 2.0: An innovative regional project that seeks to integrate habitat improvement and flood risk management in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project focuses on creating landscape designs that promote improved sediment transport through flood control channels, improved flood conveyance, and the restoration and creation of resilient bay land habitats.

Sonoma-Marin Coastal Regional Sediment Management Report, California: Provides county sediment management opportunities, which will inform a statewide Sediment Management Master Plan.

Collaboration: Sea-level Marin Adaptation Response Team: An effort led by the Community Development Agency of Marin County to understand the potential impacts of sea level rise and work together with communities to prepare for a resilient future

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Altered precipitation patterns

Impacts:
- Flashier rain events
- Variable water availability and flow
- Changes in local salinity
- Turbidity

Increase watershed management planning to maintain water quality and quantity under a changing climate Integrated Stormwater Management Plans, Vancouver Canada: Measures adopted include on-site rainfall retention, re-exposure and naturalization of culverted or buried streams, reduction targets for total impervious area and improved public access to waterways. (H,I) (PL,IP)

Erosion Control in Los Laureles Canyon, California: Revegetation and the installation of pervious pavers used to prevent erosion upstream of estuary (H, I) (AS, PL)

Protection for erosion-vulnerable coastal areas, Quebec, Canada: Erosion maps used to determine “areas at risk” over a 25-year future time horizon and temporary control measures were implemented (H,I) (AS,IP)

 
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Altered precipitation patterns

Impacts:
- Flashier rain events
- Variable water availability and flow
- Changes in local salinity
- Turbidity

Maintain/restore natural hydrologic connectivity Pesca Responsable, La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: Channels were rehabilitated within mangrove stands to improve hydrologic flow as a strategy to address increased salinity within fish habitat (H,S) (AW,IP).  
Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Reduce land-based runoff to reduce pollutants that exacerbate pH declines (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) The Tampa Bay Nitrogen Management Consortium has implemented over 250 reforms and projects to reduce nitrogen discharge into the Tampa Bay Estuary even as the population of the watershed has increased (H) (AW, IP). Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision-makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws details policy options by which local and state governments—as opposed to federal and international bodies—can reduce these local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Support seagrass restoration to locally ameliorate reduced pH The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB) comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea to promote the removal of CO2 via marine forests. (O) (IP) Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision-makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws details policy options by which local and state governments—as opposed to federal and international bodies—can reduce these local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Manage species for changing climatic conditions (e.g., diminished development due to ocean acidification) Responding to Ocean Acidification: The Oyster Emergency Project: Identify short-term solutions to enhance hatchery production, establish monitoring programs in key estuaries, identify resilient oyster genotypes, and identify better tools to detect disease-causing bacteria. (S) (AS, PL, IP) Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (S,H)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws details policy options by which local and state governments—as opposed to federal and international bodies—can reduce these local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Maintain connectivity with adjacent ecosystems to maintain/enhance natural function San Francisco Bay Living Shorelines Project: Restoring subtidal habitats (eelgrass, oyster reefs) and investigating if restoration has benefits for/improves functioning of adjacent habitats (H) (AS, PL)

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Elizabeth River Project, Virginia: Increased the climate resilience of the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding community through over 100 wetland restoration, storm buffer, and sediment cleanup projects since 1997. (H,I) (PL,IP,IT) EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Increase and improve public awareness through education, outreach and involvement Communication pathways to integrate fishers in the design of a network of fishery replenishment zones in the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California (Spanish): Organized civil society, academics and decision makers worked together to design fishery replenishment zones to support small-scale fisheries. (H) (AW,PL) EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

Estuary/Wetlands/ Mudflats General resilience Include climate change in general site management plans Incorporating Climate Change Response into a General Management Plan, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: Provides adaptation approaches for both natural resources and cultural assets. (H,C) (AS,PL)

Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast, British Columbia: A partnership between the government of British Columbia and First Nations to integrate climate change into marine use plans. (H, C) (AW, PL).

EPA Climate-Ready Estuaries: Provides a variety of resources and case studies related to estuary, wetland, and coastal management in the face of climate change 

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

Pelagic Stressors:
- Increasing storm frequency/severity
- Changing ENSO/PDO
- Altered currents and upwelling/mixing
- Increasing water temperature

Impacts:
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms
- Increasing turbidity
- Changes in water chemistry
- Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs

Manage coastal runoff (e.g., stormwater, wastewater, nutrients) to reduce cumulative stress Modeling Sediment Yield in Hawaii: Provided baseline data about the origin and volume of sediment transported to Pelekane Bay, which helped determine effective management practices to reduce sediment yields. (H) (SH) OceanAdapt webtool: Collates data on shifts in marine species distributions over time (focus on commercial and recreational species)

The State of Climate Adaptation in U.S. Marine Fisheries Management: Highlights a variety of case studies, including pelagic examples

Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas: Predicts current species distribution ranges and projected range shifts of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf sea

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool: Broadly applicable tool used to investigate potential water quality impacts from development, other land uses, and climate change. This tool simulates erosion, pollution, and their accumulation from overland flow.

Pelagic Stressors:
- Increasing storm frequency/severity
- Changing ENSO/PDO
- Altered currents and upwelling/mixing
- Increasing water temperature

Impacts:
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms
- Increasing turbidity
- Changes in water chemistry
- Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs

Utilize best management practices in human land-use areas to reduce sediment loading Greening Australia: Reducing sediment input and improving water quality on the Great Barrier Reef by working with landowners to rebuild eroding gullies and restore coastal wetlands; these efforts can be replicated in other systems. (H) (IP) OceanAdapt webtool: Collates data on shifts in marine species distributions over time (focus on commercial and recreational species)

The State of Climate Adaptation in U.S. Marine Fisheries Management: Highlights a variety of case studies, including pelagic examples

Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas: Predicts current species distribution ranges and projected range shifts of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf sea

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool: Broadly applicable tool used to investigate potential water quality impacts from development, other land uses, and climate change. This tool simulates erosion, pollution, and their accumulation from overland flow.

Pelagic Stressors:
- Increasing storm frequency/severity
- Changing ENSO/PDO
- Altered currents and upwelling/mixing
- Increasing water temperature

Impacts:
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms
- Increasing turbidity
- Changes in water chemistry
- Changes in salinity due to altered freshwater inputs

Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts on pelagic systems NOAA Fisheries Regional Action Plans guide implementation of NOAA's climate science strategy, intended to provide data and tools to manage climate impacts. (S) (PL)

Resilience and Adaptation of a Coastal Ecological-Economic System in Response to Increasing Temperature, Gulf of Maine: Project aims to understand how warming and abrupt temperature changes impact marine ecosystems and fisheries with focus on lobster (e.g., impacts on groundfish). (H,S) (AS)

OceanAdapt webtool: Collates data on shifts in marine species distributions over time (focus on commercial and recreational species)

The State of Climate Adaptation in U.S. Marine Fisheries Management: Highlights a variety of case studies, including pelagic examples

Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas: Predicts current species distribution ranges and projected range shifts of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf sea

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)

OpenNSPECT (Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool: Broadly applicable tool used to investigate potential water quality impacts from development, other land uses, and climate change. This tool simulates erosion, pollution, and their accumulation from overland flow.

Pelagic Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts on pelagic systems New Zealand Ocean Acidification Observing Network: Monitoring program created to monitor regional waters in order to establish a “baseline” understanding of ocean pH and quantify future change due to both atmospheric and land-based factors. (H) (IP, EV)

Building Resilience to Ocean Acidification in Seward, Alaska: Collaboration between the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery and federal and academic partners to measure the impacts of ocean acidification on three species of shellfish important for subsistence harvesting and develop adaptation strategies. (S, C) (IP, IT)

Pacific Ocean Acidification Working Group, Canada: Identifying practical ways of addressing gaps in monitoring and research, and building capacity and collaboration. (H, S, O) (PL)

Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Ocean Acidification Hotspots: Online interactive map that shows where the ocean chemistry is changing most rapidly, where vulnerable species are located, and where people who most depend on these species reside.

Pelagic Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Monitor and regulate localized sources of acidification from runoff and pollutants such as fertilizers Ocean Acidification Policy: Applying the Lesson of Washington to California and Beyond: Evaluates the political landscape in which OA policy is taking shape along the west coast of the United States and highlights elements of a political and policy strategy that would build current momentum. (O) (PL) Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Ocean Acidification Hotspots: Online interactive map that shows where the ocean chemistry is changing most rapidly, where vulnerable species are located, and where people who most depend on these species reside.

Pelagic General resilience Identify and protect refugia Identifying Potential Marine Climate Change Refugia in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: Demonstrated analysis of Canada's Pacific marine ecosystems to identify areas where conditions are stable or changing slowly. (H) (AS)

Fisheries and Inter-Sectoral Collaboration in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Creation of an inter-sectorial coalition that has fostered fishermen's participation in fisheries management and established 16 no-take fish refuges across 18,000 hectares. (H,S) (EV)

Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes.
Pelagic General resilience Prioritize ecosystem-based management, rather than single-species based management Using Ecosystem-Based Management as an Adaptation Strategy in the Pacific Fishery Management Council for Washington, Oregon, and California: Examined the impacts of climate change on fisheries management through an ecosystem fishery management plan that includes consideration of climate change; plan was finalized in April 2013. (H) (PL) Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes.
Pelagic General resilience Incorporate climate change into stock assessments and management (e.g., adjust fisheries' catch limits due to changes in ranges/fecundity/development) Effect of Climate Change on Highly Migratory Tunas and Billfishes in the Gulf of Mexico: Collaborative project models climate change effects on fish population dynamics and spawning habitat. (S) (AS)

Bering Sea Climate Change Study: Creating downscaled climate models to estimate future abundance of commercially and ecologically important fish stocks in the Bering Sea in order to facilitate climate-informed fisheries management in the region. (S) (AS)

Using a Precautionary Approach to Manage North Pacific Fisheries Under Uncertainty: Adoption of a precautionary approach for fisheries within the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, and the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas by prohibiting certain commercial fishing activities until better science becomes available. (S) (AS)

Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes.
Pelagic General resilience Develop new fisheries (e.g., squid, jellies) that may become more prevalent to reduce pressure on fisheries that may decline Developing a fishery for the invasive green crab in New England, USA: Green crab are thriving in changing New England waters and market-driven harvest is being explored as a solution. Though not specific to pelagic habitats, this is an example of facilitating change in market demand to favor a now abundant species. (H, S) (PL) Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes.
Pelagic General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Protecting Endangered Whales from Ship Strikes in the Santa Barbara Channel, California: Vessel speed reduction trial incentive program called the Blue Whales, Blue Skies project intended to slow cargo ships down to reduce air pollution and increase protection of endangered whales. (S) (IP) Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes.
Pelagic General resilience Increase and improve public awareness through education, outreach and involvement Fostering Fisheries Management Efficiency Through the Kanan Kay Alliance in the Mexican Caribbean: Creation of a voluntary, multi-stakeholder collaborative network that established a work plan focused on the establishment of fish refuges (no-take zones) across the Mexican Caribbean, enhancing a shared vision and communication around the efficient use of limited resources. (S) (AW,PL) Northeast Fisheries Climate Vulnerability Assessment: Applied the NOAA Fisheries Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of 82 fish and invertebrate species to projected climate changes.
Kelp Forest Stressors:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality
 

Protect/restore habitat structural complexity and biodiversity The Bay Foundation's Kelp Forest Restoration Project has restored 45 acres of kelp forest habitat to the Palos Verdes peninsula in Southern California, with accompanying increases in invertebrate and fish diversity and biomass. (S) (IP)

Restoring kelp forest habitat and reducing urchin grazing in British Columbia: Local collaboration to increasing habitat connectivity in nearshore waters. (H, S) (IP)

Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: State of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource.

Rise of Turfs: A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests describes the global trend of kelp loss and turf algae dominance, and suggests mechanisms to curb global losses.

Kelp Forest Stressors:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality
 

Assisted evolution (e.g., "seed" vulnerable areas with spores from temperature-resilient populations) While there are no documented case studies of this technique applied for kelp species, research in assisted evolution of coral species is well documented and may be applicable. For example, the Australian Institute of Marine Science has a description of this technique and application to coral reefs. Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp: A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: State of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource.

Rise of Turfs: A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests describes the global trend of kelp loss and turf algae dominance, and suggests mechanisms to curb global losses.

Kelp Forest Stressors:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality
 

During times of suboptimal oceanographic conditions, increase allowable urchin harvest to reduce grazing pressure California Fish and Game Commission Adopted Emergency Regulations to Increase Purple Sea Urchin Bag Limit in 2018 due to a recent explosion in purple sea urchin populations off northern California, one of several extreme environmental conditions contributing to a widespread collapse of kelp forests. (S) (IP) Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: state of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource.

Rise of Turfs: A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests describes the global trend of kelp loss and turf algae dominance, and suggests mechanisms to curb global losses.

Kelp Forest Stressors:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality
 

Improve monitoring of kelp canopy to correlate changes in abundance with oceanographic conditions. The Northwest Straits Commission's Regional Bull Kelp Survey is leveraging partnerships to conduct kayak-based surveys of local populations and aerial imagery from a volunteer pilot. (S) (AS, IP) Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp: A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research: state of knowledge of (1) the ecology of the bull kelp and its role in coastal ecosystems, (2) the human uses of and impacts on this species and the coastal ecosystem, and (3) the approaches to managing this resource.

Rise of Turfs: A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests describes the global trend of kelp loss and turf algae dominance, and suggests mechanisms to curb global losses.

Kelp Forest Stressor:
- Altered currents and mixing

Impact:
- Changing larval transport and dispersal

Research zoospore/larval transport to better understand impact of altered currents and mixing on recruitment and persistence of kelp and key kelp forest species. Though the impact of currents and vertical mixing on spore dispersal has been investigated (see Tools & Resources Gaylord et al. 2006), the impact of climate change on spore dispersal has not yet been considered. Macroalgal Spore Dispersal in Coastal Environments: Mechanistic Insights Revealed by Theory and Experiment Gaylord et al. 2006

Effects of Climate Change on Global Seaweed Communities: A review of climate-related impacts to seaweeds in terms of their physiology, growth, reproduction, and survival, which considers the extent to which seaweed species may be able to respond to these changes via adaptation or migration.

Kelp Forest Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Monitor and regulate localized sources of acidification from runoff and pollutants such as fertilizers. Ocean Acidification Policy: Applying the Lesson of Washington to California and Beyond: evaluates the political landscape in which policy is taking shape and highlights elements of a political and policy strategy that would build current momentum. (O) (PL) Ocean Acidification 2.0: Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Ocean Acidification Hotspots: Online interactive map that shows where the ocean chemistry is changing most rapidly, where vulnerable species are located, and where people who most depend on these species reside

Kelp Forest Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Use kelp and other marine algae to remove CO2 from the water and provide a buffer from ocean acidification for marine species. The Korean Project's Coastal CO2 Removal Belt comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea to promote the removal of CO2 via marine forests. (O) (IP) Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Ocean Acidification Hotspots: Online interactive map that shows where the ocean chemistry is changing most rapidly, where vulnerable species are located, and where people who most depend on these species reside.

Kelp Forest Stressor:
- Altered precipitation patterns

Impact:
- Flashier rain events
- Turbidity
 

Manage runoff and utilize best management practices in human land use areas to reduce sediment loading Greening Australia is reducing sediment input and improving water quality on the Great Barrier Reef by working with landowners to rebuild eroding gullies and restore coastal wetlands. These efforts can be replicated in other systems. (H) (IP)

Applying Green Infrastructure to Stem Runoff and Safeguard Puerto Rico’s Corals: The community, watershed managers, government agencies and nonprofit organizations work together to reduce land-based sources of sediment and pollution. Also applies to any near-shore habitat. (H) (IP)

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)
Kelp Forest General resilience Identify and protect refugia Identifying potential marine climate change refugia: A case study in Canada’s Pacific marine ecosystems: Satellite data and model projections were used to identify potential marine climate refugia in the northeast (NE) Pacific Ocean, focusing on British Columbia, Canada. (H) (AS)

Deep-water kelp refugia as potential hotspots of tropical marine diversity and productivity, Ecuador: Using an oceanographic and ecophysiological model, deep-water tropical kelp populations were discovered off the Galapagos Islands and may serve as deep-water kelp refugia. (S) (AS)

 
Kelp Forest General resilience Protect/restore remnant habitat, particularly larger habitats and areas with high biodiversity Channel Islands Marine Protected Areas, California: After 10 years of kelp forest protection via MPA network, biomass and abundance of fish increased, indicating protected systems may be more resilient to future climate impacts. (H) (EV)  
Kelp Forest General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Purple Urchin Removal, California: Removing purple urchins and restoring kelp beds along the Palos Verdes Peninsula reduces cumulative stressors that lead to kelp bed decline. (S) (IP)

Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts in Baja Mexico: Marine reserves increased the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event caused by climate-driven hypoxia. (H) (EV)

 
Kelp Forest General resilience Support the recovery of lost or degraded keystone species (e.g., sea otter, giant sea bass) Sea Otter Reintroduction, Oregon: The Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Laboratory is assessing the ecological feasibility of sea otter reintroduction by identifying suitable sea otter habitat and determining potential impacts of sea otter predation. (S) (AS)  
Kelp Forest General resilience Increase and improve public awareness through education, outreach and involvement The Noyo Center for Marine Science "Help the Kelp" Campaign, California: Educates the community about the dramatic loss of kelp in Northern California, and provides opportunities to volunteer, donate, support climate change legislation, and spread the word. (S) (AW)  
Seagrass Stressor:
- Increasing water temperature
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Harmful algal blooms

Impacts:
- Impaired water quality

Manage coastal runoff (e.g., stormwater, wastewater, nutrients) to reduce cumulative stress Seagrass Restoration Following Reduced Nitrogen Loading in Tampa Bay, Florida: A public-private partnership implemented over 250 collaborative, watershed-based projects designed to reduce nutrient loading in a shallow, subtropical estuary previously affected by severe anthropogenic eutrophication. (H) (IP,EV,SH) Intervention Options to Accelerate Ecosystem Recovery From Coastal Eutrophication: Review article that discusses broad, comprehensive approaches to control eutrophication at an ecosystem scale.
Seagrass Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Use “soft-engineering” techniques and/or natural infrastructure to replenish or mimic natural buffers San Francisco Bay Living Shorelines Project: Pilot project to restore eelgrass and oyster reefs, evaluate fish, invertebrate, and avian use of restored reefs, and evaluate benefits to adjacent shorelines (e.g., reduced wave action). (H,O) (IT,EV)

Maintaining tropical beaches with seagrass and algae: Research demonstrating that seagrass and calcifying algae together can help stabilize beach foreshore. (H, S) (PL)

Humboldt Bay Eelgrass Comprehensive Management Plan: Establishes a long-term conservation strategy that allows for sea level rise adaptation, dredging, and economic development in Humboldt Bay, California

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience

Seagrass Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Improve coastal zone development and management policy to better accommodate sea level rise Assessing Seagrass Vulnerability Along Florida's Gulf Coast: Used projected sea level rise, flooding, and elevation to determine how seagrass habitats may be impacted along an urbanized shoreline. Will inform the development of an integrated management plan that addresses the effect of shoreline hardening on seagrass habitats. (H) (AS) Humboldt Bay Eelgrass Comprehensive Management Plan: Establishes a long-term conservation strategy that allows for sea level rise adaptation, dredging, and economic development in Humboldt Bay, California

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience.

Seagrass Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Facilitate inland/upland migration (e.g., remove migration barriers, enhance connectivity with inland/upland habitats) Specific case studies were not located for this action. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats. Humboldt Bay Eelgrass Comprehensive Management Plan: Establishes a long-term conservation strategy that allows for sea level rise adaptation, dredging, and economic development in Humboldt Bay, California

Estrategia para la restauración del ecosistema regional del Golfo de México (Spanish): Strategies for ecosystem restoration for fisheries, habitat and economic resilience.

Seagrass Stressor:
- Altered precipitation patterns

Impacts:
- Hypersaline conditions during dry periods
- Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall
- Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall

Manage coastal runoff from increased precipitation to reduce freshwater inflow Specific case studies for this habitat were not located for these actions. However, case studies supporting these actions can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)
Seagrass Stressor:
- Altered precipitation patterns

Impacts:
- Hypersaline conditions during dry periods
- Sudden decreases in salinity following heavy rainfall
- Increasing sediment loading and turbidity following heavy rainfall

Utilize best management practices in human land-use areas to reduce sediment loading Specific case studies for this habitat were not located for these actions. However, case studies supporting these actions can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

EPA Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Non-Point Sources Climate Assessment Tool: BASINS was developed by the EPA to integrate environmental data, analysis tools, and watershed and water quality models to help inform watershed management and total maximum daily load (TMDL)
Seagrass Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impact:
- Changing water chemistry

Monitor and regulate sources of land-based runoff that may increase localized ocean acidification. Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Ocean Acidification 2.0: Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken, and describes opportunities for decision-makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Monaco Ocean Acidification Action Plan: Created by the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group in 2015 to share progress and set global priorities for scientific research, policy, and management.

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Ocean Acidification Hotspots: Online interactive map that shows where the ocean chemistry is changing most rapidly, where vulnerable species are located, and where people who most depend on these species reside

Seagrass General resilience Protect/restore structural complexity and biodiversity in remnant habitat, particularly in larger areas Predicting Seagrass Locations Off the Coast of Florida: Demonstrates the process of using known seagrass locations in combination with other indicator variables to identify other areas that are likely to support seagrass habitat, which will aid managers in protecting remnant habitat (H) (SH)

Supporting Ecosystem Services Through Seagrass Restoration on Virginia's Eastern Shore: Large-scale restoration project in shallow coastal bays has resulted in ecosystem recovery following a disease outbreak and damage from a major hurricane, which has also resulted in increased rates of nitrogen removal and carbon sequestration. (H,O) (IT,EV)

Increasing Coastal Resilience through Restoration and Education in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: Restoration of eelgrass beds in Narragansett Bay to provide food and shelter for native flora and fauna. (H)

North American Blue Carbon 2017: Supported by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, includes online map and downloadable files of salt marsh, mangrove, and seagrass distribution along the coasts of Canada, the U.S., and Mexico

Managing Seagrasses for Resilience to Climate Change: Report that highlights general vulnerabilities and management options for seagrasses worldwide.

Seagrass Conservation Working Group, British Columbia: Coalition focused on conservation and restoration of seagrass habitats. Website provides info on mapping efforts, publications, and other resources to support seagrass conservation.

Nearshore Eelgrass Habitat Mapping in the Salish Sea: Mapping effort undertaken from 2012–2014, which improves knowledge about habitat location, provides baseline data, and helps focus conservation efforts on the shorelines and watersheds that have the greatest impact on seagrass habitats.

National Marine Fisheries Service California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy: Compensatory mitigation recommended for the loss of existing eelgrass habitat function, but only after avoidance and minimization of effects to eelgrass have been pursued. The policy includes guidance and suggested actions to reduce the impact of multiple stressors, including turbidity, run-off, and nutrient loading.

Seagrass General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes (e.g., boat landings, coastal development, aquaculture) Tomales Bay Mooring Program: Partnership between the California State Lands Commission and Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary to protect eelgrass beds by providing specific criteria for where moorings will be allowed in the bay, introducing mandatory specifications for mooring tackle, and requiring inspection and maintenance of moorings. (H) (IP) North American Blue Carbon 2017: Supported by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, includes online map and downloadable files of salt marsh, mangrove, and seagrass distribution along the coasts of Canada, the U.S., and Mexico

Managing Seagrasses for Resilience to Climate Change: Report that highlights general vulnerabilities and management options for seagrasses worldwide

Seagrass Conservation Working Group, British Columbia: Coalition focused on conservation and restoration of seagrass habitats. Website provides info on mapping efforts, publications, and other resources to support seagrass conservation.

Nearshore Eelgrass Habitat Mapping in the Salish Sea: Mapping effort undertaken from 2012–2014, which improves knowledge about habitat location, provides baseline data, and helps focus conservation efforts on the shorelines and watersheds that have the greatest impact on seagrass habitats

National Marine Fisheries Service California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy: Compensatory mitigation recommended for the loss of existing eelgrass habitat function, but only after avoidance and minimization of effects to eelgrass have been pursued. The policy includes guidance and suggested actions to reduce the impact of multiple stressors, including turbidity, run-off, and nutrient loading.

Seagrass General resilience Identify and protect refugia Specific case studies for this habitat were not located for this action. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats. Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject. North American Blue Carbon 2017: Supported by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, includes online map and downloadable files of salt marsh, mangrove, and seagrass distribution along the coasts of Canada, the U.S., and Mexico

Managing Seagrasses for Resilience to Climate Change: Report that highlights general vulnerabilities and management options for seagrasses worldwide

Seagrass Conservation Working Group, British Columbia: Coalition focused on conservation and restoration of seagrass habitats. Website provides info on mapping efforts, publications, and other resources to support seagrass conservation.

Nearshore Eelgrass Habitat Mapping in the Salish Sea: Mapping effort undertaken from 2012–2014, which improves knowledge about habitat location, provides baseline data, and helps focus conservation efforts on the shorelines and watersheds that have the greatest impact on seagrass habitats

National Marine Fisheries Service California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy: Compensatory mitigation recommended for the loss of existing eelgrass habitat function, but only after avoidance and minimization of effects to eelgrass have been pursued. The policy includes guidance and suggested actions to reduce the impact of multiple stressors, including turbidity, run-off, and nutrient loading.

Coral Reef Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Assisted evolution in restoration (e.g., select and restore reef with corals that are less prone to bleaching) Australian Institute of Marine Science is actively researching multiple assisted evolution processes to enhance coral resilience to increasing temperature and ocean acidification. (H, S) (PL)

Recognizing Coral Adaptations to Environmental Stressors, National Park of American Samoa: Researching unique coral adaptations/assemblages and identifying resilient reef areas to inform future protection and management efforts. (H, S) (PL)

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that include ways to respond to bleaching events. (S, H)

CoralAssistedEvolution.com: A research collaboration between Australian Institute of Marine Science and Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology. This website provides comprehensive information on coral assisted evolution research. (S,H)

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)

Coral Reef Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Investigate/utilize portable thermal management systems to prevent bleaching during forecasted heat events (e.g., pump cool water or use shade cloth to protect heat-stressed reef) Cooling experiments in American Samoa: Localized experiments looking at cooling technology options and scalability. (H, S) (PL) ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that include ways to respond to bleaching events. (S,H)

CoralAssistedEvolution.com: A research collaboration between Australian Institute of Marine Science and Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology. This website provides comprehensive information on coral assisted evolution research. (S,H)

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)

Coral Reef Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Utilize temporary closures during bleaching events to reduce additional stress on corals Andaman Sea, Thailand: Temporary closures of popular dive sites following 2010 bleaching event to build resilience and enhance coral recovery. (H) (IP) ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that include ways to respond to bleaching events (S,H)

CoralAssistedEvolution.com: A research collaboration between Australian Institute of Marine Science and Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology. This website provides comprehensive information on coral assisted evolution research. (S,H)

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)

Coral Reef Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Protect resilient habitat areas as natural refugia (e.g., those shown to be resilient to bleaching in the past) Mesoamerican Reef climate refugia and conservation gaps systematically identified through monitoring and assessment, Central America. (H) (EV)

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan, Australia: Identifying refugia and resilience of different areas to inform future use (e.g., recreation) and prioritize protection. (H) (EV)

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that include ways to respond to bleaching events (S,H)

CoralAssistedEvolution.com: A research collaboration between Australian Institute of Marine Science and Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology. This website provides comprehensive information on coral assisted evolution research. (S,H)

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)

Coral Reef Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Manage coastal runoff (e.g., stormwater, wastewater, nutrients) to reduce cumulative stress Reducing fertilizer runoff, Great Barrier Reef Australia: Collaboration between government and farmers to reduce fertilizer runoff adversely affecting the Great Barrier Reef. (H) (IP)

Applying Green Infrastructure to Stem Runoff and Safeguard Puerto Rico’s Corals: The community, watershed managers, government agencies and nonprofit organizations work together to reduce land-based sources of sediment and pollution. (H) (IP)

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that include ways to respond to bleaching events (S,H)

CoralAssistedEvolution.com: A research collaboration between Australian Institute of Marine Science and Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology. This website provides comprehensive information on coral assisted evolution research. (S,H)

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)

Coral Reef Stressor:
-Ocean acidification

Impact:
-Changing water chemistry

Understand impact of ocean acidification on marine organisms Ocean acidification impacts on marine organisms including coral: Research summary. (H, S) ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that consider ocean acidification. (S,H)

Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification Lessons from coral bleaching: Review publication suggesting lessons learned from coral bleaching are useful for addressing ocean acidification impacts.

Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification. (H,P)

Honolulu Declaration on Ocean Acidification and Reef Management: IUCN and TNC management and policy recommendations. (H)

Coral Reef Stressor:
-Ocean acidification

Impact:
-Changing water chemistry

Identify and protect resilient habitat areas natural refugia Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations, Papua New Guinea: Field investigation of diversity, recruitment and species abundance in coral reefs, seagrasses and sediment habitats in varying pH. (H, S) (PL)

Mesoamerican Reef climate refugia and conservation gaps systematically identified through monitoring and assessment, Central America. (H) (EV)

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that consider ocean acidification. (S,H)

Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification Lessons from coral bleaching: Review publication suggesting lessons learned from coral bleaching are useful for addressing ocean acidification impacts.

Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H,S)

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification. (H,P)

Honolulu Declaration on Ocean Acidification and Reef Management: IUCN and TNC management and policy recommendations. (H)

Coral Reef Stressor:
-Ocean acidification

Impact:
-Changing water chemistry

Monitor and manage localized sources of acidification from runoff and pollutants such as fertilizers. (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). Reducing fertilizer runoff, Great Barrier Reef Australia: Collaboration between government and farmers to reduce fertilizer runoff adversely affecting the Great Barrier Reef. (H) (IP)

Reef protection regulations and best management practices for cane farmers and graziers: Help shift farming practices towards compliance with government directives to reduce runoff impacts to the reef. (H, P) (IP)

ReefResilience.org: Education, community involvement approaches, management strategies, case studies and tools that consider ocean acidification. (S,H)

Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification Lessons from coral bleaching: Review publication suggesting lessons learned from coral bleaching are useful for addressing ocean acidification impacts.

Ocean Acidification 2.0 Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry: Synthesizes available biogeochemical and ecological information on coastal acidification, reviews actions managers have undertaken thus far, and describes opportunities for decision makers to mitigate and/or adapt to ocean acidification at the spatial scales relevant to their authority. (H, S)

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification. (H,P)

Honolulu Declaration on Ocean Acidification and Reef Management: IUCN and TNC management and policy recommendations. (H)

Coral Reef General resilience Integrate climate change into management of coral reef species Coral Species Designation Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Two species of corals are the first listed due to climate change impacts on habitat. Designation will provide additional attention, research, and resources directed towards protecting coral reef species. (H, S) (P) A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)
Coral Reef General resilience Reduce local non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes Threat reduction: Temporary closures, manage recreational use, manage invasive species, manage coral predators, protect herbivores and reduce land-based impacts are potential ways to reduce local non-climate stressors. (H) (PL) A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (S,H)
Coral Reef General resilience Increase restoration and recruitment of important coral species by enhancing reproductive and settling success Regrowing coral along the Riviera Maya, Mexico: Collaboration to enhance the recovery of key coral species struggling against bleaching and disease. (H, S) (EV, SH) A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching: Provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching, and management strategies to help local and regional reef managers reduce this threat to coral reef ecosystems. (H,S)
Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Facilitate inland/upland migration (e.g., buffers, setbacks, open space/conservation easements, land acquisition, restoration, remove/modify migration barriers) Mapping Mangrove Migration in the Everglades, Florida: Used a series of models to map inland mangrove migration under future sea level rise scenarios (H) (AS) Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation; focused on the Philippines but applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change which also considers adaptation options.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Identify and protect resilient sites (e.g., mangroves adjacent to rivers/streams that provide sediment sources, mangroves buffered from storm surge by barrier islands) Restoration of Mangroves in the Sian Ka‘an Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: Ecosystem-based approach to adaptation where community involvement was used to address water flow changes due to new roadway in reserve (H, I) (AW, PL) Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation. It is focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of the state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change, which also considers adaptation options.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Promote natural accretion (e.g., maintain/restore hydrological and tidal connectivity, manage upland land use) Carey Island, Malaysia: Water circulation and sediment accretion enhanced in mangrove forest through the use of dikes and submerged breakwaters (H) (IP, EV)

Reforestation and rehabilitation of sandy coastal protection forest, Vietnam: Reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded coastal forest along with livelihood development activities for communities proved an effective measure in reducing the vulnerability of local people. (H, C) (AS, PL).

Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation. It is focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of the state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change, which also considers adaptation options.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Improve coastal zone development and management policy to better accommodate sea level rise City of Duque de Caxias, Brazil master plan: The city's master plan considers services and climate vulnerabilities of mangroves and other ecosystems while addressing municipal vulnerability to sea level rise and other climate change impacts (I, C) (AW, PL). Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation. It is focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges.

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of the state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change, which also considers adaptation options

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressors:
-Sea level rise
-Storm severity/frequency
-Wave action

Impacts:
-Increasing flooding
-Inundation
-Erosion

Use “soft-engineering” techniques and natural infrastructure to replace or mimic natural buffers Protecting Shell Mound Sites from SLR and Erosion, Canaveral National Seashore, Florida: Seeks to map and document threatened mound sites, protect shell mounds from erosion using a combination of living shorelines and soft armoring, and engage the local community (C) (AS, IP, SH)

Rehabilitating Stream Crossings on Historic Roads, Acadia National Park, Maine: Developing strategies to protect historically significant trails, paths and roads from climate-related flooding. (I, C) (EV)

Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community-based mangrove rehabilitation; focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of the state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change, which also considers adaptation options.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Protect/restore habitat structural complexity and biodiversity Building Tarquinas in the Biosphere Reserve of Sian Ka’an, Mexico: Structural complexity and biodiversity was increased by constructing "tarquinas," islands of sediment that encourage new mangrove colonization and growth. While this project was not undertaken with the goal of reducing water temperatures, the increased shading provided by the canopy of a diverse mangrove forest may have this effect. (H,S) (AW, IP) Specific tools and resources for this action were not located for this habitat. However, tools and resources supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Manage coastal runoff (e.g., stormwater, wastewater, nutrients) to reduce cumulative stress Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats. Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject. Specific tools and resources for this action were not located for this habitat. However, tools and resources supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor
-Increasing water temperature
Use climate-appropriate species in restoration efforts A documented instance of this strategy being used in the management of coastal forests or mangroves was not located but the use of climate-appropriate species in restoration efforts is a strategy with broad applicability across ecosystem types. Specific tools and resources for this action were not located for this habitat. However, tools and resources supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest Stressor:
- Altered precipitation patterns

Impacts:
- Flashier rain events
- Changing salinity conditions
- Longer dry periods
- Altered sediment flow

Maintain/restore natural hydrologic connectivity with upland systems Restoration of mangroves and hydrological flows, Mexico: The restoration of hydrologic connectivity was used to restore mangrove forests as part of a strategy to adapt to numerous climate impacts, including reduced rainfall (H,I,C) (AS,PL,IP). Specific tools and resources for this action were not located for this habitat. However, tools and resources supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest
General resilience Demonstrate ecosystem services value of mangroves to increase support for restoration by local communities Gulf of California Mangrove Ecosystem Services Quantification, Mexico: Quantifying ecosystem services provided by mangroves to inform coastal planning and policy to ultimately reduce mangrove habitat loss (H,P) (AW,AS)

Restoration of mangrove ecosystems in Ciénaga de la Virgen, Columbia. The EbA program in Colombia is working with the Mayor's office, the Botanical Gardens, local NGOs and communities in the implementation of pilot projects for the restoration of mangroves in particularly vulnerable areas of the coastal lake of Ciénaga de la Virgen. (H) (PL,IP)

Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community based mangrove rehabilitation. It is focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges.

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of the state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change, which also considers adaptation options.

Mangrove/Coastal Forest
General resilience Include climate change in general site management plans Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Protected Area management plan, Brazil: Climate change risks and ecosystem-based adaptation measures have been incorporated into the protected area's management plan (H) (AW, PL) Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community based mangrove rehabilitation; focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges.

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change and considers adaptation options

Mangrove/Coastal Forest
General resilience Increase and improve public awareness through education, outreach and involvement Shared governance/Co-management of mangrove forests in Vietnam has resulted in increased protection and increased mangrove area (H) (PL, IP)

Community-based ecological-hydrological mangrove restoration, Thailand: The mangrove action project works with local communities to restore abandoned shrimp farms by facilitating the natural seeding and regeneration of mangroves through the restoration of natural hydrology, leading to the restoration of a natural and diverse mangrove ecosystem (H,S,C) (AW, PL, IP)

Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation: Expertise and support for community based mangrove rehabilitation. It is focused on the Philippines but is applicable to other locations

Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change: Outlines management choices for mangroves given climate change challenges.

Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review of the state of knowledge of vulnerability and responses to climate change, which also considers adaptation options.

Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor:
- Altered currents and upwelling/mixing

Impact:
- Diminishing dissolved oxygen
- Changes in water chemistry and nutrient content

Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Ecological Role of Submarine Canyons and Need for Canyon Conservation: Identifies the ecological status of canyons, current/future issues for canyon conservation, highlights the need for a better understanding of anthropogenic impacts, and proposes research to inform management measures. The publication also discusses potential for climate change to modify the intensity of currents, impacting the structure and functioning of canyon communities and nutrient supply to deep-ocean ecosystems.
Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impacts:
- Changing water chemistry

Boost local saturation state by chemical or mechanical means (e.g., installing bags of lime) Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Options for Managing Impacts of Climate Change on a Deep-Sea Community: Discusses adaptation options for a deep-sea Australian coral community developed and evaluated at a workshop (supplementary tables list adaptation options)

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Deep seafloor/ Canyon Stressor:
- Ocean acidification

Impacts:
- Changing water chemistry

Monitor and regulate localized sources of acidification from runoff and pollutants such as fertilizers. Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. However, case studies supporting this action can be found for other habitats.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Options for Managing Impacts of Climate Change on a Deep-Sea Community: Discusses adaptation options for a deep-sea Australian coral community developed and evaluated at a workshop (supplementary tables list adaptation options)

Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws: Details policy options by which local and state governments can reduce local and regional “hot spots” of ocean acidification.

Deep seafloor/ Canyon General resilience Enhance monitoring of deep sea habitats and species to better inform decision-making and future adaptation efforts Knowledge Sharing to Inform Conservation and Research Decisions for the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument (MNM): Used interviews with scientists to determine drivers of change and vulnerability in deep-sea ecosystems, perceptions of knowledge gaps, and suggested research priorities. (H) (AS) Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative - Climate Change Working Group: Dicusses ntegration of climate change impacts and cumulative pressures on deep-sea ecosystems into environmental impact assessment and management plans and design of Marine Protected Areas. The working group also identifies high-vulnerability areas and fosters interdisciplinary approaches to investigate how deep-sea ecosystems interact with climate on a functional basis.

INDEEP: International Network for Scientific Investigation of Deep-Sea Ecosystems: Global collaborative scientific network dedicated to the acquisition of data, synthesis of knowledge, and communication of findings on the biology and ecology of our global deep ocean.

Deep seafloor/ Canyon General resilience Enhance resilience to climate by reducing non-climate stressors to enhance resilience to climate changes (e.g., commercial fishing, oil and gas extraction, pollution), particularly in areas likely to be highly affected by climate change (e.g., the Arctic, upwelling areas) until more is known about these systems and how they interact with climate change and human activities Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. See tools and resources for supporting information.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative - Climate Change Working Group: Discusses integration of climate change impacts and cumulative pressures on deep-sea ecosystems into environmental impact assessment and management plans and design of Marine Protected Areas. The working group also identifies high-vulnerability areas and fosters interdisciplinary approaches to investigate how deep-sea ecosystems interact with climate on a functional basis.

INDEEP: International Network for Scientific Investigation of Deep-Sea Ecosystems: Global collaborative scientific network dedicated to the acquisition of data, synthesis of knowledge, and communication of findings on the biology and ecology of our global deep ocean.

Deep seafloor/ Canyon General resilience Encourage collaborative, multi-sector ocean governance and marine spatial planning to manage for multiple stressors and protect refugia Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. See tools and resources for supporting information.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative - Climate Change Working Group: Discusses integration of climate change impacts and cumulative pressures on deep-sea ecosystems into environmental impact assessment and management plans and design of Marine Protected Areas. The working group also identifies high-vulnerability areas and fosters interdisciplinary approaches to investigate how deep-sea ecosystems interact with climate on a functional basis.

INDEEP: International Network for Scientific Investigation of Deep-Sea Ecosystems: Global collaborative scientific network dedicated to the acquisition of data, synthesis of knowledge, and communication of findings on the biology and ecology of our global deep ocean.

Ice/Snow Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Coastal erosion

Identify cultural resources and collect information or materials from vulnerable sites if it is likely to be lost Cultural Resource Inventory, Alaska: Using GIS to identify sites at risk from sea level rise and erosion, which will then inform sites for surveying and protection (H, C) (AS) The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.
Ice/Snow Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Coastal erosion

Retreating from increasing erosion due to decreasing sea and shore ice Responding to sea level rise and coastal erosion in Forillon National Park, Quebec: Responding to and anticipating growing impacts from winter storms as shore and sea coastal ice lessens. (H) (IP)

Relocating the Village of Newtok, Alaska: Retreating from accelerating erosion rates due to declining sea ice protection and increased storm surge exposure. (I, C) (IP)

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.
Ice/Snow Stressors:
- Increasing air temperature
- Increasing water temperature
Promote winter ice development via wind-powered pumping of cool water to ice surface for rapid freezing Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. See tools and resources for supporting information.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Arctic ice management: Paper exploring the feasibility of wind-powered pumps to promote ice development

Range contraction and increasing isolation of a polar bear subpopulation in an era of sea-ice loss: Paper demonstrating polar bear movement changes linked to climate at different time scales

Ice/Snow Stressors:
- Increasing air temperature
- Increasing water temperature
Understand and facilitate range shift of ice-dependent species Specific case studies for this action were not located for this habitat. See tools and resources for supporting information.

Please email suggestions to info@CAKEx.org with "Climate Adaptation Toolkit for Marine and Coastal Protected Areas" in the subject.

Arctic ice management: Paper exploring the feasibility of wind-powered pumps to promote ice development

Range contraction and increasing isolation of a polar bear subpopulation in an era of sea-ice loss: Paper demonstrating polar bear movement changes linked to climate at different time scales

Ice/Snow General resilience Improve understanding of changing ice patterns Monitoring Lake Ice and Snow in Alaska: Creation of the Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network, facilitating research on snow and ice depth, density, cover, and thickness; this information is then incorporated into a larger data set to establish a baseline to measure the effects of climate change. (H) (AS)

Igliniit Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project, Canada: Collecting data during Inuit hunters’ travel to create community maps that provide qualitative and quantitative information to inform status and trends in hunting patterns and land and sea ice characteristics. (H, C) (AS)

National Snow and Ice Data Center: Provides and analyzes data relating to snow and ice resources
Ice/Snow General resilience Integrate climate change into management of ice/snow-dependent species Polar Bear Designation Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Polar bears were one of first species listed due to climate change impacts on habitat; designation will provide additional attention, research, and resources directed towards protecting U.S. populations of polar bears. (S) (AW, PL) National Snow and Ice Data Center: Provides and analyzes data relating to snow and ice resources
Ice/Snow General resilience Increase research and monitoring to better understand potential impacts of changes in snow, ice and permafrost Collecting Baseline Biological and Geologic Data to Understand Coastal Change, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska: Collection of baseline information and an updated evaluation of coastal resource vulnerabilities in order to make prudent management decisions related to increased marine traffic, sensitive areas, and natural and cultural resource protection. (H, I, C) (AS, PL) National Snow and Ice Data Center: Provides and analyzes data relating to snow and ice resources
Infrastructure Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Saltwater intrusion

Use “soft-engineering” techniques and/or natural infrastructure to replenish or mimic natural buffers (e.g., protect/restore barrier islands, protect/restore natural habitats, living shorelines, beach nourishment, kelp bed restoration, saltmarsh restoration) Preserving Wetlands to Increase Climate Resilience in New Orleans, Louisiana: Conservation and restoration of wetlands using a combination of methods (e.g., dredged material, water control structures, levees) in order to provide a buffer zone between the Gulf of Mexico and the city following Hurricane Katrina. (I, H) (I,P) Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2)

Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: Explores 18 different land-use tools (legal devices) that can be used to respond to sea level rise threats to coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools meet their socio-economic and political contexts.

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.

Infrastructure Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Saltwater intrusion

Managed retreat/relocation/realignment Relocating the Village of Kivalina, Alaska: Village in the process of searching for an appropriate relocation site; in the meantime, they are taking measures to prevent erosion at their current location. (I, C) (PL)

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Visitor Facilities, Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts: Relocating vulnerable infrastructure (bathhouse, parking lot), using moveable/elevated structures, and redesigning artificial dune to maintain recreational opportunities (I) (IP, EV)

Relocating the Lighthouse, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina: Inland relocation of a historic lighthouse by 0.9 km (0.55 mi), although new location may still be vulnerable in the long-term (I) (SH)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2)

Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: Explores 18 different land-use tools (legal devices) that can be used to respond to sea level rise threats to coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools meet their socio-economic and political contexts.

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.

Infrastructure Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Saltwater intrusion

Utilize portable/removable and/or elevated infrastructure Coastal Zone Management for Sea Level Rise in Malibu, California: Land Use and Local Implementation Plan requires development setbacks, prohibits shoreline armoring, and requires sea level rise projections to be considered in the design of new beachfront development. (I) (IP)

Relocating Visitor Facilities Threatened by Erosion, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia: Replaced permanent visitor facilities with portable infrastructure and constructed roads and parking lots from natural materials that could be moved; considering recreational beach relocation. (I) (PL, EV)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2)

Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: Explores 18 different land-use tools (legal devices) that can be used to respond to sea level rise threats to coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools meet their socio-economic and political contexts.

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.

Infrastructure Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Saltwater intrusion

Avoid building/rebuilding in vulnerable areas (e.g., develop climate-informed recovery plans, incorporate sea level rise into planning/design/policy, zoning, setbacks, rolling easements) Quantifying the Success of Buyout Programs in Staten Island, New York: Project evaluated the vulnerability (including exposure and social vulnerability) of buyout participants following Superstorm Sandy, and makes recommendations for how to increase program efficacy (I) (SH)

Neskowin Coastal Erosion Adaptation Plan, Oregon: Outlines and prioritizes a variety of options to direct infrastructure away from erosion-prone areas, including zoning overlays, setbacks, protective retrofits, managed retreat, and purchase/transfer of development rights (I)

The Need for Storm Recovery Plans, Cape Lookout National Seashore, North Carolina: Developing plans to avoid reactionary decision making and manage public expectations about access and facility rebuilding as storm risk increases (I) (AW, PL)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2)

Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: Explores 18 different land-use tools (legal devices) that can be used to respond to sea level rise threats to coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools meet their socio-economic and political contexts.

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.

Infrastructure Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Saltwater intrusion

Protect vulnerable infrastructure (e.g., seawalls, bulkheads, riprap) Blue Plains Wastewater Facility in Washington DC Reinforces Facility Against Floods: The facility built a sea wall that will protect it facility from riverine flooding and storm surge during a 1,500-year storm (I) (IP) Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2)

Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: Explores 18 different land-use tools (legal devices) that can be used to respond to sea level rise threats to coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools meet their socio-economic and political contexts.

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.

Infrastructure Stressors:
- Sea level rise
- Increasing wave action
- Increasing storm severity/frequency

Impacts:
- Shoreline change
- Increasing erosion
- Saltwater intrusion

Design infrastructure that can accommodate climate changes Proactive Incorporation of Sea Level Rise into the Design of the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in Boston, Massachusetts: Planners designed an elevated wastewater treatment plant to accommodate sea level rise projected to occur for the life of the facility. (I) (SH)

Tampa Bay Diversifies Water Sources to Reduce Climate Risk: Tampa Bay Water constructed a desalination plant and expanded water sources to include surface water and desalinated water in addition to groundwater, enabling facility to meet demand in a changing climate. (I) (EV)

Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure - A Database of Case Studies: Includes 15 in-depth case studies from around the world demonstrating the use of green and blue infrastructure for climate change adaptation. The database also includes 18 brief case studies (Appendix 1) and additional sources of case studies (Appendix 2)

Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: Explores 18 different land-use tools (legal devices) that can be used to respond to sea level rise threats to coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools meet their socio-economic and political contexts.

Coastal and Waterfront SmartGrowth: Sustainable coastal development information, tools, and case studies for planners, local government officials, developers, residents, and other stakeholders

The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy: Created by the U.S. National Park Service, the strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures.

Infrastructure

Stressors:
- Altered precipitation patterns,

Impacts:
- Flashier rain events

- Riverine/freshwater flooding

Design infrastructure to account for projected flow rates and flashier flooding events Enhancing Flood Resilience with the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan: Creation of a 50-year plan that proposes water system upgrades and urban design projects to reduce flood risk and improve stormwater, surface water, and groundwater management in New Orleans. (I) (PL)

Using Climate Forecasts to Plan Infrastructure Updates in O'ahu, Hawai'i: Using forecasts of La Niña impacts for the coming winter, an O'ahu landfill quickly upgraded infrastructure to divert and hold large amounts of stormwater. This saved the company a million dollars and prevented the release of untreated water and waste onto nearby beaches. (I) (SH)

Rehabilitating Stream Crossings on Historic Roads in Acadia National Park, Maine: Rehabilitation of historic road systems and culverts damaged by increasingly frequent flooding and erosion events, requiring increased maintenance and visitor use closures. Project included incorporation of future streamflow scenarios into infrastructure design. (I) (IP)

Camden, New Jersey Uses Green Infrastructure to Manage Stormwater: Evaluated vulnerability to flooding and responded by repairing and/or raising critical site elements to handle increased threat of flooding and reduce the risk of contaminant release. (I) (SH)

Canadian Extreme Water Level Adaptation Tool (CAN-EWLAT): A science-based planning tool for climate change adaptation of coastal infrastructure related to future water-level extremes and changes in wave climate. The tool includes two main components: 1) vertical allowance and 2) wave climate.

Flood Resilience - A Basic Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities: User-friendly tool from the EPA that includes embedded videos and maps to help communities evaluate vulnerability to flooding and identify options to protect valuable assets

Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure: An EPA guide published to help communities manage stormwater with green infrastructure

A Guide to Assessing Green Infrastructure Costs and Benefits for Flood Reduction: Guide that lays out a six-step watershed-based approach for documenting the costs of flooding, projecting increased flooding and associated costs under future land use and climate conditions, and calculating the long-term benefits and costs of a green infrastructure approach

Infrastructure Stressors:
- Altered precipitation patterns,

Impacts:
- Flashier rain events
- Riverine/freshwater flooding

Limit development in floodplains and other areas at high risk of flooding Strengthening Floodplain Regulation in Waveland, Mississippi: Updated FEMA floodplain map and created new floodplain ordinances following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. (I) (SH) Canadian Extreme Water Level Adaptation Tool (CAN-EWLAT): A science-based planning tool for climate change adaptation of coastal infrastructure related to future water-level extremes and changes in wave climate. The tool includes two main components: 1) vertical allowance and 2) wave climate.

Flood Resilience - A Basic Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities: User-friendly tool from the EPA that includes embedded videos and maps to help communities evaluate vulnerability to flooding and identify options to protect valuable assets

Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure: An EPA guide published to help communities manage stormwater with green infrastructure

A Guide to Assessing Green Infrastructure Costs and Benefits for Flood Reduction: Guide that lays out a six-step watershed-based approach for documenting the costs of flooding, projecting increased flooding and associated costs under future land use and climate conditions, and calculating the long-term benefits and costs of a green infrastructure approach

Infrastructure General resilience Increase and improve public awareness and action through education, outreach and involvement The Netherlands Live With Water" Public Awareness Campaign: The campaign emphasizes that the current water management system based on technological solutions is inadequate and more space is needed to store water. Also promotes steps individuals can take to reduce the threat of flooding. (I) (AW)

Coastal vulnerability to climate change and sea-level rise, Northeast Graham Island, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia: Comprehensive vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning by a coastal community that takes into account many of the challenges a small remote community must consider and address.