Relocating Visitor Facilities Threatened by Erosion, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia

Ish Ennis
Created: 11/25/2015 - Updated: 2/28/2020


Assateague Island National Seashore is responsible for maintaining and managing access to a recreational beach that is impacted by storms multiple times each year. Maintaining the recreational beach in its present location is unsustainable in the face of continued storms, shoreline erosion, and sea level rise. The park must develop cost-effective, sustainable ways to provide a recreational beach and beach access that are acceptable to local interests and visitors. 


The park manages a recreational beach within the US Fish and Wildlife Service’s (USFWS) Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia. This beach is the primary economic driver for the local community of Chincoteague, Virginia, which caters to visitors with hotels, restaurants, and other amenities. The park committed to maintaining and managing the recreational beach through a 1967 agreement with the USFWS, which had an existing agreement with the citizen group Assateague Bridge and Beach Authority to have a recreational beach in exchange for construction of a bridge connecting the town with the refuge. 

The recreational beach is in one of the island’s most dynamic locations, and has experienced accelerated shoreline erosion, increased storm impacts, and frequent overwash since the 1980s. Annual repair and relocation of roads and visitor parking lots in this area continue to be high maintenance, expensive, time-consuming, and stressful for staff who must rush to complete months-long repairs before each summer tourist season. 


The park has implemented several solutions to improve sustainability. Infrastructure in this area has been replaced with portable substitutes that can be relocated off-island in advance of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-forecasted storms and in response to erosion. The park now constructs roads and parking lots in this area from island-compatible materials, a clay base with clam shell for a road surface, which are dug up and reused when the lot is moved, and which also avoid introduction of foreign debris such as asphalt on post-storm beaches. The surface requires twice-weekly maintenance and additional clam shells need to be added every year or two. Parking lot repairs have been supported by Emergency Relief for Federally Owned Roads (ERFO) funding and existing park staff. 

Although these efforts have improved the sustainability and lifespan of the recreational beach facilities, new solutions will need to be developed. Due to continued island narrowing in this location, the current parking lot is now at its inland limit because it is backed by a wetland, leaving no room for another move westward, based on US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) wetland delineations. 
The two solutions that have been discussed as part of the updates to the USFWS comprehensive conservation plan are alternative transportation (shuttle or bus) and relocation of recreational access to a more stable location. However, the Town of Chincoteague dislikes both strategies, believing they would discourage tourism. The town insists that the 1960s agreements require the government to maintain not only the beach but also visitor parking areas. Furthermore, shuttles are not financially self-supporting, and the town, the USFWS, and the park do not have the operational funds to support this expensive option. 

Outcomes and Conclusions

In consideration of cost constraints and town interests, relocating the recreational beach is not only the most reasonable solution but also may be considered essential at this point. To determine suitable parking lot locations and configurations, the park has used shoreline monitoring data to forecast future shoreline erosion rates, and has worked with the USFWS to identify appropriate areas for relocation. The park and USFWS will also use forthcoming results of a US Geological Survey model indicating the impacts of sea level rise and storm intensity along the island. 

Due to its ongoing success, the existing portable infrastructure would likely be used in the new location, along with the visitor center, which has been moved twice already. The clay base and clamshell surface might also be used in the new location. The biggest challenge in moving forward with relocation of the recreational beach will likely be opposition by the Town of Chincoteague. Education and outreach programs may help to strengthen the park’s efforts. The project is ongoing.

This case study is part of the 2015 National Park Service report, Coastal Adaptation Strategies: Case Studies. These case studies initially were developed by park managers as part of a NPS-led coastal adaptation training in May 2012. The case studies follow the format created for EcoAdapt’s Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) database, including a list of adaptation strategies. All case studies were updated and modified in September 2013 and March 2015 in response to a growing number of requests from coastal parks and other coastal management agencies looking for examples of climate change adaptation strategies for natural and cultural resources and assets along their ocean, lacustrine, and riverine coasts.


Submitted by user and reviewed by CAKE Content Editor November 2015


Ennis, I. (2015). Relocating Visitor Facilities Threatened by Erosion, Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia [Case study on a project of Assateague Island National Seashore]. Excerpted from Schupp, C.A., R.L. Beavers, and M.A. Caffrey [eds.]. 2015. Coastal Adaptation Strategies: Case Studies. NPS 999/129700. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. Retrieved from CAKE:…;(Last updated November 2015)

Project Contact(s)

Life on Assateague Island has adapted to an existence on the move. Explore sandy beaches, salt marshes, maritime forests and coastal bays. Rest, relax, recreate and enjoy some time on the edge of the continent.


Target Climate Changes and Impacts
Sea level rise
Type of Adaptation Action/Strategy
Capacity Building
Coordinate planning and management
Increase / Improve public awareness, education, and outreach efforts
Conduct / Gather additional research, data, and products
Host adaptation training or planning workshop
Infrastructure, Planning, and Development
Managed retreat of built infrastructure, relocation of people/communities
Make infrastructure resistant or resilient to climate change
Governance and Policy
Create new or enhance existing policies or regulations

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