Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We review the state of knowledge of mangrove vulnerability and responses to predicted climate change and consider adaptation options. Based on available evidence, of all the climate change outcomes, relative sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves. Most mangrove sediment surface elevations are not keeping pace with sea-level rise, although longer term studies from a larger number of regions are needed.
Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, CNMI, and minor outlying islands
Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia.
Experiments have shown that ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations has deleterious effects on the performance of many marine organisms. However, few empirical or modelling studies have addressed the long-term consequences of ocean acidification for marine ecosystems. Here we show that as pH declines from 8.1 to 7.8 (the change expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from 390 to 750ppm, consistent with some scenarios for the end of this century) some organisms benefit, but many more lose out.
There are very few tools available for Coral Reef managers for counteracting mass coral bleaching, primarily caused by elevated seawater temperatures. Climate Foundation developed a field-based cooling system for reef water to give Coral Reef managers the possibility to act on bleaching warnings to preserve high-value reefs in the face of climate threats.
We asked ourselves, can we reverse coral bleaching in the field on a small scale? Can we scale it? Can we provide reef managers with new tools to protect high-value reefs against climate change?