Propagule supply is fundamental in regulating the strength of demographic and genetic interactions in natural populations. In marine systems, recent studies focusing on benthic fish and invertebrate species with long planktonic durations have found that propagule production and supply are de-coupled by physical transport processes. Most benthic marine populations therefore have been considered demographically open, whereby recruitment is driven by remote propagule production. Few studies have focused on species with shorter planktonic durations (e. g., seaweeds).
Prepared for the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science
This research has shown that kelp forest restoration is possible in barrens when purple urchins are selectively removed.
In 2003, California established thirteen marine protected areas (MPAs) in state waters around the northern Channel Islands, off the coast of Southern California. In 2007, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration extended these MPAs into federal waters of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. These areas, most of which are no-take marine reserves, were designed to help restore biodiversity and ecosystem health by protecting local marine life and habitats.
This Article aims to distill the lessons of Washington’s experience with ocean acidification (OA) policy and apply them to the political framework that exists in California.
Over one quarter of the units of the National Park System occur along ocean coastlines. Ongoing changes in relative sea levels and the potential for increasing storm surges due to anthropogenic climate change and other factors present challenges to national park managers.
Global mean sea levels have been rising since the last ice age approximately 20,000 years ago (Archer and Rahmstorf 2010; IPCC 2007). Relative to the past two to three thousand years, the rate of rise has increased signifi - cantly and is projected to increase at an accelerating pace throughout the 21st century because of climate change (IPCC 2007).
Sea level rise is a major climate change impact that is already being experienced in parts of the United States, including many marine protected areas (MPAs) along the coast. MPAs can play an important role in addressing the impacts of climate change and building community resilience. As special places with long term protection, many MPAs provide the infrastructure to focus research and monitoring efforts of climate trends, provide protection against non-climate stressors, and effectively engage the community through public education programs, advisory groups, and onsite staff.