The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Series, U.S. Caribbean Fishing Communities, is the result of the Southeast Fisheries Science Center’s Caribbean Sustainable Fishing Communities Initiative, which was brought about by the recognition that the success of coral reef conservation strategies hinges on the ability to reconcile the need to protect coral reef and associated environments with the local cultural, economic, political and social requirements of coastal communities. While valuable socio-economic research had been conducted, there was no comprehensive program to collect baseline socio-economic data in place for entire U.S. Caribbean. Most of the earlier research was driven by specific management concerns and had a restricted geographic scope. Moreover, a significant share of this research is now outdated and inadequate to support management actions and meet the new legal definitions and requirements put forth by Magnuson Stevens Act (MSA), particularly National Standard 8, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and Executive Orders 12898 and 12866. To address the above challenges, the Southeast Fisheries Science Center has commissioned a number of studies to develop a comprehensive overview of the historical, cultural, economic, and social condition of fishing communities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands.