Climate Resilient Infrastructure Services in Visakhapatnam and Panaji, India


Panaji , GA
15° 29' 27.348" N, 73° 49' 40.26" E
Goa IN

Coastal areas face multiple risks related to climate change and variability. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report identified several highly urbanized, low-lying deltas of Asia and Africa as particularly vulnerable to climate-related impacts.

U.S. Department of Transportation Climate Adaptation Plan (2014)

Pursuant to Executive Orders No. 13514 and 13653, as well as Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Implementing Instructions, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is required to submit a Climate Adaptation Plan. DOT’s work on climate adaptation began with the understanding that climate impacts will affect DOT’s strategic goals of safety, state of good repair and environmental sustainability. This plan is an update from the 2012 DOT Climate Adaptation Plan, which includes the new requirements of E.O. 13653 and guidance from CEQ. It reflects FY2013 and FY2014 commitments as well as other DOT accomplishments.

This adaptation plan is organized into sections based on the guidance from CEQ and describes steps DOT will take to move towards fully integrating considerations of climate change adaptation and resiliency into DOT policies, programs, and operations. The Office of the Secretary and modal administrations are each playing a role in implementing this plan. The Office of Safety, Energy and Environment (OSEE), in the Office of the Secretary (OST), coordinates DOT’s actions with support from the DOT’s Climate Change Center, staffed from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Innovation, also located in OST. OSEE has participated in the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, the related CEQ working group and the community of practice. DOT staff has presented work on regional impacts, pilots and best practices before Federal forums and with Federal agencies in order to share information and exchange best practices. OST’s Office of the Assistant Secretary of Administration manages DOT’s facilities and assets across the country.

Cambridge Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment (CCVA) Report - Part 1

CCVA Report - Part 1 presents the results of "climate stress test" on the city of Cambridge, MA.  The vulnerability assessment focuses on risks related to rising tempertures and greater precipitation.  The science-based assessment was conducted in an interdisciplinary manner with extensive communitya stakeholder engagement. The study's time horizons are 2030 and 2070.  Downscaled climate projectsion were developed specifically for the city and used to model possible the resposne of the municipal stormwater infrastructure from projected increases in rates of precipitation, changes in urban heat islands, and days over 90 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. With these projections, the City assessed vulnerabilites related to climate change for about 500 physical assests and for the city and neighborhoods considering about 500 social and demographic factors at the Census tract level.The climate change projections find that Cambridge, if no action is taken, may see a near tripling of days over 90 degrees F by 2030 and 4 to 6 times more days over 90 degrees F by 2070.  Precipitation driven flooding would expand significantly in extent and depth as drainage systems back up and riverine systems overtop their banks with greater frequency and severity.  Increasing heat could by 2070 put most of the city at heat index temperatures that are dangerous to public health based on NOAA criteria.  As a result, key infrastructure such as electrical substations, natural gas transfer facilities, transit stations and rail lines, telecommunications equipment, critical public safety and social service facilities, and neighboroods would see current risks exacerbated and new risks develop if no action is taken.  The report also estimates economic losses due to property damage and to business disruption; examines the vulnerability of the urban forest; and considers other public health risks from a qualitative perspective.  A second report will be issued on the risks from sea level rise and storm surges.  The CCVA is serving as the technical foundation for the City's Climate Change Preparedness and Resilience Plan.

Storm-Ready Cities: How Climate Resilience Boosts Metro Areas and the Economy

In his Climate Action Plan, President Barack Obama acknowledged the risks of climate change to families, businesses, infrastructure, and water supplies across the country. To help metro areas manage these risks, the president pledged to reduce flood damage by raising flood elevation standards for federally funded infrastructure projects, to support community resilience through existing federal grant programs, and to make climate change information more accessible, among other actions. But given the high cost of strengthening cities to withstand extreme weather—which the journal Climate Policy reports could rise to hundreds of billions of dollars per year by the middle or end of the century—and the even higher cost of inaction, urban and federal leaders must do more to increase metro-area resilience.

In this report, we identify climate change risks to cities, highlight metro areas that are taking the lead to build resilience in ways that support economic growth and help tackle other pressing challenges, and recommend local and federal actions to further support urban resilience and inclusive, sustainable economic growth. Our recommendations include:

Coastal Adaptation Strategies: Case Studies

Innovative and unique solutions are being devised throughout the national park system to adapt to climate change in coastal parks. The 24 case studies in this document describe efforts at national park units in a variety of settings to prepare for and respond to climate change impacts that can take the form of either an event or a trend. Examples of these impacts include increased storminess, sea level rise, shoreline erosion, melting sea ice and permafrost, ocean acidification, warming temperatures, groundwater inundation, precipitation, and drought. The adaptation efforts described here include historic structure preservation, archeological surveys, baseline data collection and documentation, habitat restoration, engineering solutions, redesign and relocation of infrastructure, and development of broad management plans that consider climate change. Each case study also includes a point of contact for park managers to request additional information and insight.

These case studies initially were developed by park managers as part of a NPS-led coastal adaptation to climate change training hosted by Western Carolina University in May 2012. The case studies format follows the format created for EcoAdapt’s Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) database that identified a list of adaptation strategies. All case studies were updated and modified in September 2013 and March 2015 in response to a growing number of requests from coastal parks and other coastal management agencies looking for examples of climate change adaptation strategies for natural and cultural resources and assets along their ocean, lacustrine, and riverine coasts. 

The Salt Marsh Advancement Zone Assessment for Connecticut


55 Church Street
06510 New Haven , CT
United States
41° 18' 17.4168" N, 72° 55' 34.1868" W
Connecticut US

The Salt Marsh Advancement Zone Assessment for Connecticut report is the culmination of a statewide study of each of the 24 coastal municipalities in Connecticut. At the municipal scale, these 24 individual reports inform communities about future marsh advancement locations, current land use of those affected properties, and which parcels are critical to the persistence of the community’s salt marshes.

Climate Change Preparedness Plan for the North Olympic Peninsula

It is increasingly apparent that the global climate is rapidly changing and that these changes will affect the people, ecosystems, economy, and culture of the North Olympic Peninsula. The most noticeable impacts will likely include:

  • A diminishing snowpack lowering the region’s summer river flow and extending the summer drought season;
  • Shifts in the timing and type of precipitation, creating rain on snow events and unseasonably high stream flows that scour river bottoms and flood low-land areas;
  • Ongoing sea level rise driving coastal flooding, saltwater inundation, and enhanced shoreline erosion;
  • Extended warm temperatures which result in increased river water temperatures, enhanced wildfire risk, decreased soil moisture, and stressed forests through disease and insect outbreaks; and
  • Increasingly corrosive ocean waters (i.e. ocean acidification) from the ongoing absorption of human emissions of CO2.

These changes will affect the natural resources and livelihoods of the people of the North Olympic Peninsula, as well as the entire regional economy.

Climate change exerts its influence on human lives both directly (from extreme weather events) and indirectly (through ecosystem shifts and associated impacts to the natural and built environment). This Plan utilizes a regional planning perspective to understand and prepare for Climate Change’s impact to Ecosystems, Water Supplies, and Critical Infrastructure on the North Olympic Peninsula.

Napa River Watershed Flood Protection and Enhancement Project


Napa , CA
United States
38° 17' 51.1368" N, 122° 17' 12.714" W
California US

Seasonal flooding along the Napa River is a regular occurrence, and records indicate there have been at least 22 serious floods on the river since 1865. In 1998, Napa County voters passed a measure for the Napa River Flood Protection Project (NRFPP), which works to achieve 100-year flood protection while supporting living river principles (e.g., reconnecting the river to its historic floodplain, retain natural channel features).

Clyde River Community Climate Adaptation Plan


United States
70° 28' 45.6492" N, 68° 34' 50.808" W

Clyde River, like many small communities located in Nunavut, Canada, is threatened by melting permafrost and thinning sea ice due to a warming climate. To help prepare for the adverse impacts of climate change, the Clyde River community worked with partners to develop a community adaptation plan. Projects were designed to better understand the threat sea level rise, melting permafrost and change in freshwater availability could have on the community. The lessons learned from their experience are being applied to five other communities in Nunavut to help develop adaptation plans. 

Climate Change in the United States: Benefits of Global Action

This report summarizes and communicates the results of EPA’s ongoing Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project.

The goal of this work is to estimate to what degree climate change impacts and damages to multiple U.S. sectors (e.g., human health, infrastructure, and water resources) may be avoided or reduced in a future with significant global action to reduce GHG emissions, compared to a future in which current emissions continue to grow. Importantly, only a small portion of the impacts of climate change are estimated, and therefore this report captures just some of the total benefits of reducing GHGs. To achieve this, a multi-model framework was developed to estimate the impacts and damages to the human health and welfare of people in the U.S. The CIRA framework uses consistent inputs (e.g., socioeconomic and climate scenarios) to enable consistent comparison of sectoral impacts across time and space. In addition, the role of adaptation is modeled for some of the sectors to explore the potential for risk reduction and, where applicable, to quantify the costs associated with adaptive actions.

The methods and results of the CIRA project have been peer reviewed in the scientific literature, including a special issue of Climatic Change entitled, “A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States.”