Recognizing Coral Adaptations to Environmental Stressors, National Park of American Samoa


United States
14° 14' 52.7064" S, 170° 40' 22.0044" W
American Samoa US
Author Name(s): 
Tim Clark

Ofu Lagoon, part of the National Park of American Samoa, contains a healthy coral reef habitat that supports a diversity of species. The park is working with university partners towards the goal of understanding the unique adaptations of the coral in Ofu Lagoon to multiple environmental stressors associated with climate change.

Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas

Tool Overview: 

The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas (Aqueduct) is a publicly available, global database and interactive tool that maps indicators of water-related risks. Aqueduct enables comparison across large geographies to identify regions or assets deserving of closer attention.

BETA LAUNCH: Projected Change Indicators, 2020, 2030, 2040

Restoration and Conservation of Black Ash Trees in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian Eco-region of Canada


46° 22' 0.5916" N, 62° 52' 29.1216" W
Prince Edward Island CA

Black ash trees are found throughout much of southeastern Canada and play important cultural and economic roles in the lives of First Nation communities. Unfortunately, black ash populations are rapidly disappearing due to anthropogenic impacts and other stressors. In response, many First Nations in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian eco-region are working to preserve and restore black ash tree populations. 

Evaluation of the Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System 2010-2015


United States
24° 40' 1.1496" N, 81° 21' 13.536" W

This project seeks to evaluate success and implementation of the Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System 2010-2015 (Action Plan)Spearheaded by EcoAdapt and the Florida Reef Resilience Program (FRRP) in 2008-2009, the Action Plan was the result of a multiyear collaborative effort amongst stakeholders including coral reef scientists, managers, research institutions, divers, fishers, and various regional user groups.

The Climate Around Climate Change on Florida’s Reefs: In Action or Inaction?

This project seeks to evaluate the success and degree of implementation of the Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System 2010-2015 (referenced hereafter as Action Plan, and cited as CCAPFRS). This Action Plan identifies interdisciplinary actions to be incorporated into reef management plans in order to address a myriad of climatic and non-climatic stressors to the reef system, minimize risks to coral reef dependent people and industries, and target scientific research priorities for strategic management.

As we are now in the final year of the Action Plan, the status and degree of implementation of the plan’s 40 recommendations has been unknown until now. A qualitative evaluation was designed due to a lack of monitoring, established benchmarks, and specific measures in the plan. Through stakeholder interviews, surveys, and independent Internet research this project assessed to what degree the recommended actions had been implemented and developed a scorecard to consolidate information on management strategies underway that contribute to the general success of the Action Plan. The scorecard enhances communication among stakeholder groups and various governmental and state agencies regarding collective progress, and serves as a blueprint for a subsequent plan moving forward. This review process demonstrated the great benefits and value of monitoring and evaluation of action plans with application worldwide.

Overall, it was found the plan is in a fairly good degree of implementation, with 80% of the plan’s 40 action items addressed to some degree. The most success was found in research goals, and the area most in need regards fisheries management. Some priorities changed over time. There has been a strong monitoring and reporting network built in the region, with several programs utilizing “eyes and ears on the water”. The capacity to respond and monitor coral bleaching events has also greatly increased.

2014 Highlights of Progress and 2015 Implementation Plan for the National Action Plan: Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate

This report highlights progress made in 2014 implementing the National Action Plan and describes the specific tasks that federal agencies are planning to undertake in 2015. It also builds on a previous report published in 2014 which described progress in 2013 and plans for 2014. Taken together, the work described in this report reports reflect a comprehensive, coordinated, and continuing effort by federal agencies to respond to the challenges posed by climate change for water resources management. 

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for the North-central California Coast and Ocean

This vulnerability assessment is a science-based effort to identify how and why focal resources (habitats, species, and ecosystem services) across the North-central California coast and ocean region are likely to be affected by future climate conditions. The goal of this assessment is to provide expert-driven, scientifically sound assessments to enable marine resource managers to respond to, plan, and manage for the impacts of climate change to habitats, species, and ecosystem services within the region. This information can help prioritize management actions, and can help managers understand why a given resource may or may not be vulnerable to a changing climate, enabling a more appropriate and effective management response. Climate change vulnerability of 44 focal resources, including eight habitats, populations of 31 species, and five ecosystem services was assessed by considering exposure and sensitivity to climate changes and non-climate stressors and adaptive capacity. The 44 focal resources were identified and assessed by representatives from federal and state agencies, non-governmental organizations and academic institutions. Coastal habitats in the study region, including beaches and dunes, estuaries, and the rocky intertidal, along with associated species and ecosystem services, were identified through this assessment as being most vulnerable, and will likely be prioritized for future management action. 

Climate Change in the United States: Benefits of Global Action

This report summarizes and communicates the results of EPA’s ongoing Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project.

The goal of this work is to estimate to what degree climate change impacts and damages to multiple U.S. sectors (e.g., human health, infrastructure, and water resources) may be avoided or reduced in a future with significant global action to reduce GHG emissions, compared to a future in which current emissions continue to grow. Importantly, only a small portion of the impacts of climate change are estimated, and therefore this report captures just some of the total benefits of reducing GHGs. To achieve this, a multi-model framework was developed to estimate the impacts and damages to the human health and welfare of people in the U.S. The CIRA framework uses consistent inputs (e.g., socioeconomic and climate scenarios) to enable consistent comparison of sectoral impacts across time and space. In addition, the role of adaptation is modeled for some of the sectors to explore the potential for risk reduction and, where applicable, to quantify the costs associated with adaptive actions.

The methods and results of the CIRA project have been peer reviewed in the scientific literature, including a special issue of Climatic Change entitled, “A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States.” 

Chronic Nutrient Enrichment Increases the Density and Biomass of the Mudsnail, Nassarius obsoletus

In summer 2009, the effects of 6 years of landscape-level experimental nutrient enrichment on the eastern mudsnail, Nassarius obsoletus (formerly Ilyanassa obsoleta), were examined. The experiment was conducted in five tidal creeks (two nutrient-enriched, three reference creeks) in the Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, USA. (42°44′ N, 70°52′ W). After 6 years of enrichment, N. obsoletus size structure differed between treatment creeks with adult snails on average 14% larger in enriched creeks. N. obsoletus densities (in individuals per square meter) and biomass (in grams dry weight per square meter) were four times higher in nutrient-enriched versus reference creeks. Nutrient enrichment did not significantly affect the biomass of benthic microalgae (a N. obsoletus food resource), but snail density was significantly correlated with benthic microalgal biomass, suggesting bottom–up control of snails. N. obsoletus is abundant on the east and west coast of North America; thus, N. obsoletus density and biomass may be useful variables for monitoring eutrophication effects on North American estuaries.

Ready for Tomorrow: The City of Salem Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment & Adaptation Plan

Salem recognizes the importance of being prepared for climate change and has produced this Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Plan (Plan). The Plan investigates some of the most serious climate change impacts, the resulting stresses to different sectors in the City, and outlines project ideas to address some of the most critical issues. The goal for this plan is to identify immediate, actionable adaptation priorities, and incorporate these into existing and future projects and policies. This will make Salem a more resilient City and a great place to live, work, and visit for years to come.