From the Introduction:
Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall strategy to help people adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change. It includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to both current climate variability, and climate change. Ecosystem-based Adaptation contributes to reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience to both climate and non-climate risks and provides multiple benefits to society and the environment.
Land protection decisions are long-term, hard to reverse, and resource intensive. Therefore these decisions are important to consider in the context of climate change, because climate change may directly affect the services intended for protection and because parcel selection can exacerbate or ameliorate certain impacts. This research examined the decision- making processes of selected programs that protect land to assess the feasibility of incorporating climate-change impacts into the evaluation of land protection programs.
The primary focus of this assessment protocol is on the effect of climate change on thermal stress on corals, for which the strong drivers are added into the general model. Many other processes may affect this model and can be incorporated as needed for a particular instance, the resilience framework providing a context to help identify the strong drivers that maintain reef health and minimize vulnerability.
This report presents an interim summary of the latest in climate change science and outlines recommended response options for decision makers in California. This document contains four key messages:
Global climate changes are likely to have profound e ects on the Earth’s ecosystems and on our perspectives on ecological conservation. Regional models project varying trends across the United States and even between southern and northern Florida. The purpose of this report is to summarize climate change literature pertinent to south Florida, particularly the Everglades, and to assess potential ecosystem vulnerabilities and the capacity for adaptation to climate change in this important ecosystem.
Conservation decisions often involve uncertainty about the underlying ecological and social systems and, in particular, how these systems will respond to the implementation of conservation actions. Future decision making can be improved by learning more about these systems and their responses to past conservation actions, by evaluating the performance of the actions being undertaken. This is a “passive” adaptive management approach to conservation.
Summary1. Climate change has been inducing range shifts for many species as they follow their suitable climate space and further shifts are projected. Whether species will be able to colonize regions where climate conditions become suitable, so-called ‘new climate space’, depends on species traits and habitat fragmentation.2.
The final session of the conference involved participants working in small groups to develop ideas that coral reef managers and users could employ to protect the region's reefs from the threats of climate change. Each of six groups discussed a set of strategies and ranked those they considered most useful. This is the total list and rankings of all the strategies. Conference planners hope this list of strategies, developed by reef managers, anglers, conservationists, dive operators, students and public officials will broaden the discussion about how to protect reefs.
Systems for management of water throughout the developed world have been designed and operated under the assumption of stationarity. Stationarity--the idea that natural systems fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability--is a foundational concept that permeates training and practice in water-resource engineering. It implies that any variable has a time-invariant probability density function, whose properties can be estimated from the instrument record.