This Tribal Climate Resilience Resource Guide (TCRRG) was developed by the Climate Subgroup of the White House Council on Native American Affairs to provide federal government-wide resources for tribes and climate in a standard framework. Each of the 567 federally-recognized Tribes can visit their Tribal Fact Sheet "Climate Dashboard" to learn about federal agencies and programs that may assist them to build resilience, whether to manage disasters, relocate, contend with shifting subsistence species, mitigate the human causes of climate change, or address other climate impacts on lifeways.
This report summarizes the results of a rapid vulnerability assessment (July 2016) and adaptation strategy planning (September 2016) workshops for 10 focal resources in the Territory and National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa by engaging with stakeholders, including village leaders, community members, resource managers, local government representatives, and business owners that rely on the resources with the goal of increasing climate resilience in the region.
What: WWF Climate Crowd is a new initiative to crowdsource information on how rural communities are responding to changes in weather and climate, and how their responses are impacting biodiversity. We are partnering with organizations like the Peace Corps to collect this data, fill critical knowledge gaps, find and implement ways to better help communities and wildlife adapt, alter our conservation strategies in light of the information we gather, and raise awareness through stories from the front lines of climate change.
There is evidence that climate change is already affecting biodiversity and will continue to do so. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment ranks climate change among the main direct drivers affecting ecosystems. Consequences of climate change on the species component of biodiversity include:
•changes in distribution,
•increased extinction rates,
•changes in reproduction timings, and
•changes in length of growing seasons for plants.
Some species that are already threatened are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The following are examples of species and of their vulnerabilities.
Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change for six basic reasons:
1. It is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and suffers from one of the worst patterns of inequality. Low-income groups in developing countries are the most exposed to climate change impacts.
2. It is the country in South America with the highest percentage of indigenous people, where much of the poverty and inequality is concentrated.
3. It is one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, with a wide variety of ecosystems that are vulnerable to different impacts from climate change.
4. More than half of the country is Amazonian, with high levels of the deforestation which adds to the vulnerability to flooding.
5. Located in a climatically volatile region, it is one of the countries in the world most affected by ‘natural’ disasters in recent years.
6. It is home to about twenty per cent of the world’s tropical glaciers, which are retreating more quickly than predicted by many experts.
In July 2009 a team of Oxfam researchers travelled to three areas of Bolivia (Trinidad in Beni, the Cochabamba valleys and Khapi under Mount Illimani, in La Paz) to take a snapshot of how poor families are experiencing the changing climate, and how they are adapting to it. The researchers also interviewed key government and international officials, social movements and NGO representatives. The main findings and recommendations of this report are:
Poor women and men throughout Bolivia are already experiencing the consequences of climate change, but in most cases are illequipped to adapt to the present and future impacts.
The perception of many villagers and local farmers is that the climate is already changing in terms of the unpredictability of the rainfall, more extreme weather events and higher temperatures, with negative impacts for their livelihoods.
Oxfam International has noted that in recent years the frequency and magnitude of damage from the extreme weather events have increased. Women are often the hardest hit, as they are often the ones left to tend small farms and families, and have fewer alternative livelihoods when crops are lost.
Bolivia can expect five main impacts as a result of climate change: less food security; glacial retreat affecting water availability; more frequent and more intense ‘natural’ disasters; an increase in mosquito-borne diseases; and more forest fires.
Of these, Oxfam International is particularly concerned that poor women and men and indigenous peoples will be affected by the effect of unpredictable weather on agricultural production as this could lead to less food availability and/or higher food prices.
Oxfam International believes that it is deeply unjust that poor communities and families in Bolivia and other South American countries are having to pay a high price for a situation for which they have virtually no historical responsibility.
In the three areas visited for this report local people, and particularly women, are already experimenting with ways of adapting to the changes in the climate. The ‘camellones’ project in Trinidad offers a promising example of poor women using ancient technologies to find a way of improving food security, adapting to flooding and reducing deforestation.
The government of President Evo Morales is beginning to take climate change seriously. However, it is still in the early stages of developing national policy and practical adaptation programmes. A major effort will be required to scale up the institutional, financial, and technical capacity to address the climate challenge.
Oxfam International´s concern is that the opportunities being opened up by the change process in Bolivia to reduce poverty, particularly amongst the indigenous population, will come under severe pressure from climate change impacts.
The establishment of the Platform of Social Organisations against Climate Change is a positive development to put pressure on national and international governments to combat the impacts of global warming. It is already having a major impact on government policy and awareness-raising.
This book, in English, French and Spanish, provides an overview of the Mediterranean forest conservation and management challenges posed by climate change. It addresses relevant issues, like forests’ vulnerability to climate change and past climate change responses which may guide future policies and actions.
Indigenous knowledge plays an important role in the way communities interact with their climate in many countries, particularly in Bolivia. It contributes to weather forecasting at the community level, and to the preservation of vital ecosystem functions that help to buffer communities against climate change impacts. However, the increasing incidence of extreme weather events and disasters is taking a toll. This situation calls for new partnerships between indigenous people and the scientific community – an area where Bolivia could lead the way.
Indigenous people have reported that traditional climatic indicators are no longer as reliable for predicting weather as in the past. Some seasonal variations have become so unpredictable that traditional observations provide little protection against the impacts of severe weather on crops and livestock. Yet, indigenous knowledge can be combined with scientific methods to allow vulnerable populations to better adapt to climate change, such as in the development of early warning systems and new planting techniques to increase resilience to extreme weather. Bolivia’s Ley de Derechos de la Madre Tierra (Law of the Rights of Mother Earth) is one important tool for indigenous people that helps to protect natural and cultural resources. Such policies, combined with partnerships among scientists and indigenous communities, can also provide useful lessons to other countries and communities.
From the Foreword:
Sub-Saharan Africa has been clearly identified to be at the frontline of the most vulnerable regions requiring urgent assistance in addressing climate change challenges in terms of sufficiently funded adaptation programmes and projects at multiple scales and time frames. There has certainly been convergence on the need for strong adaptation frameworks to address the concerns of vulnerable countries in Africa. The successful implementation of any framework requires that every option towards a solution needs to be explored, especially if it offers multiple opportunities and provides cost effectiveness. Unfortunately, what have been lacking are the options on the types of adaptation actions to be implemented. Using flexible targeted approaches may help to identify the types of actions that need to be implemented. This will be a first step towards ensuring timely and realistic adaptation across the Sub-Saharan African region.
CC DARE Lessons for Adaptation show in a myriad of ways, from community based programmes to government programmes and entrepreneurial endeavours, how concrete demonstration actions can provide solutions that can move countries and communities in Sub-Saharan Africa towards low carbon and climate resilient development. When an action delivers solutions with multiple benefits and beneficiaries ranging from reducing environmental impacts to engineering a transition to greener economic growth, this can be embraced by other countries.
The various lessons learnt highlighted in this document are highly relevant in contributing to decision-making processes using concrete examples of success stories. There are no reasons for further delays in reducing climate vulnerabilities using concrete adaptation actions, on adaptation as the price is too costly to endure by present and future generation. By highlighting the opportunities that comes with adaptation, CC DARE Lessons for Adaptation provides the right ingredient to spur us into bigger actions with greater policy attention.
Adaptations to accommodate climate change will frame the future for countries and communities across the globe. Responding to climate impacts as diverse as altered rainfall patterns, more frequent extreme weather events,and rising sea levels will challenge decision makers at every level of government and in every sector of the economy. World Resources 2010–2011 addresses the difficulty of—and pressing need for—adaptation decision making. It examines current decision-making practices, acknowledging the inherent challenge in anticipating and responding to both short-term and long-term climate change risks in national policies and plans. This report then focuses on how national governments, particularly those in developing countries, can adapt to climate change by integrating climate risks into their current practices so as to increase the resilience of their communities and ecosystems.
The report attempts to create an in-depth understanding of the stressors that influence people's livelihoods in order to address on-going and future challenges, recognizing that pastoralists have considerable knowledge and experience in dealing with climatic variability, expected to increase with climate change. However, the environmental and societal stresses experienced today are driven in part by global processes, and the traditional ways of coping with climatic variability will be insufficient in addressing climatic changes.
In this report, the vulnerability context, multiple stressors and local adaptation strategies of pastoralists in Afar and Somali regions are investigated in order to identify the social, environmental and development processes that shape adaptation options in both areas. The report takes as a starting point the recognition that pastoral communities are custodians of the local environment, and calls for a shift in development and political structures if socially and environmentally sustainable pathways are to be found.