Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: Central Asia

Growing understanding of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change has led to a significant increase in ongoing and planned adaptation action in the developing regions of the world, including Central Asia. This upsurge in climate change adaptation action is a welcome occurrence, but enhanced coordination among expanding networks of adaptation actors is needed to ensure resources are deployed quickly and effectively. Responding to this concern, a review of current and planned adaptation action in Central Asia was undertaken by the Adaptation Partnership1 between October 2010 and April 2011. Covering the countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the rapid review examined: identified priority adaptation needs; efforts by governments to support adaptation though policy and planning; the scope of international support for adaptation efforts in different countries and sectors; and potential gaps in adaptation efforts at the country and regional levels. This review of adaptation action in Central Asia is one of 12 profiles covering the regions of Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean completed by the Adaptation Partnership.

Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: West Africa

Growing understanding of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change has led to a significant rise in ongoing and planned adaptation action in the developing regions of the world, including West Africa. This upsurge in climate change adaptation action is a welcome occurrence, but enhanced coordination among expanding networks of adaptation actors is needed to ensure resources are deployed quickly and effectively. Responding to this concern, a review of current and planned adaptation action in West Africa was undertaken by the Adaptation Partnership1 between October 2010 and April 2011. The rapid review examined: priority adaptation needs; efforts by governments to support adaptation though policy and planning; the scope of international support for adaptation efforts in different countries and sectors; and potential gaps in adaptation efforts at the country and regional levels. This review of adaptation action in West Africa is one of 12 profiles covering regions in Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean completed by the Adaptation Partnership.

Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: Southern Africa

Growing understanding of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change has led to a significant rise in ongoing and planned adaptation action in the developing regions of the world, including southern Africa. This upsurge in climate change adaptation action is a welcome occurrence, but enhanced coordination among expanding networks of adaptation actors is needed to ensure resources are deployed quickly and effectively. Responding to this concern, a review of current and planned adaptation action in southern Africa was undertaken by the Adaptation Partnership between October 2010 and April 2011. Covering the countries of Botswana, Comoros, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, the rapid review examined: priority adaptation needs; efforts by governments to support adaptation though policy and planning; the scope of international support for adaptation efforts in different countries and sectors; and potential gaps in adaptation efforts at the country and regional level. This review of adaptation action in southern Africa is one of 12 profiles covering regions of Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean completed by the Adaptation Partnership.

Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: North Africa

Growing understanding of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change has led to a significant rise in ongoing and planned adaptation action in the developing regions of the world. This upsurge in climate change adaptation action is a welcome occurrence, but enhanced coordination among expanding networks of adaptation actors is needed to ensure resources are deployed quickly and effectively. Responding to this concern, a review of current and planned adaptation action in North Africa was undertaken by the Adaptation Partnership1 between October 2010 and April 2011. Covering the countries of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia and Yemen, the rapid review examined: priority adaptation needs; efforts by governments to support adaptation though policy and planning; the scope of international support for adaptation efforts in different countries and sectors; and potential gaps in adaptation efforts at the country and regional level. This review of adaptation action in North Africa is one of 12 profiles covering regions of Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean completed by the Adaptation Partnership.

Managing Risks and Increasing Resilience: The Mayor's Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

From the Executive Summary:

London is already vulnerable to extreme weather, in the form of floods, droughts, heatwaves and very cold weather. Without action, further climate change, London’s population growth, and other changes (eg changes to make-up of London’s population and land cover) will increase the risk of severe impacts. London has already experienced some changes to its climate and we should expect warmer wetter winters and hotter, drier summers in the future. Extreme weather, such as heatwaves and very heavy rainfall is expected to become more frequent and intense. Very cold winters will still occur, though they will become less frequent. Sea levels will rise for centuries.

Preparing for extreme weather and further climate change is about managing risks and increasing our resilience to them - it is therefore as much about the economy, quality of life and social equality, as about the environment. Early action today will not only manage current and future risks, but save Londoners money and create jobs.

Many of our vulnerabilities to climate impacts stem from London’s ‘urbanisation’. Restoring greenspaces and building community capacity will increase our resilience and improve our quality of life. The Mayor does not have the power or the budgets to adapt London on his own. However through this strategy he can provide a framework for collective action, identifying where he is uniquely placed to act and where other organisations, and even Londoners themselves, can lead or facilitate action.

Climate Change Adaptation Guidelines for Sea Dikes and Coastal Flood Hazard Land Use in British Columbia

Location

United States
48° 27' 26.0712" N, 123° 22' 5.61" W
US
Summary: 

Two hundred and twenty thousand people living in the Metro Vancouver region of British Columbia are protected by approximately 127 kilometres of coastal dikes. The dikes are managed by local government diking authorities that follow provincial guidelines in dike design and construction. Local governments also follow provincial guidelines in zoning and approving developments in the coastal floodplain.

Climate Change Adaptation and Water Governance

From the Executive Summary:

In most parts of Canada, climate change is increasingly affecting the way water moves through the hydrologic cycle, which up until now has fluctuated within a fixed envelope of certainty. This relatively stable regime is termed ‘stationarity’ by hydrologists. The hydro-climatic conditions that are emerging in response to climate change are increasingly outside this established range to which Canadians have demonstrated an ability to adapt over the last century.

Climate change is becoming a risk-multiplier that will test fundamental Canadian ideals related to the social contract that promises citizens peace, order and good government. The primary response to climate change in Canada thus far has focused principally on mitigating impacts by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. While such action is crucial, it is also inadequate by itself. Current and projected atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are substantial enough to mean that further climate change will occur, and indeed is already occurring, regardless of our success in reducing emissions. Therefore, it is important to couple our efforts to mitigate the cause of the problem—in the case of climate change: greenhouse gas emissions—with efforts to adapt to the current and anticipated effects of climate change. As water is an essential resource in all aspects of life, social, economic and environmental, one of the most crucial ways to adapt to the growing number of negative consequences and costly feedbacks associated with climate change is to manage water effectively.

Because there is less confusion and debate in Canada about the importance of water than many other resources, the affirmation of a new “water ethic” could be a means of ultimately achieving greater adaptive capacity to climate change, while generating a great many other lasting social, economic and environmental benefits along the way. This, however, will require new governance structures that break down existing jurisdictional fragmentation and institutional territoriality. The breaking down and reformation of governance related to the management of water will, in itself, require a high degree of committed and effective collaboration among jurisdictions.

An Integrated Regional Climate Strategy: An Impossible Dream?

One of the most publicized impacts of global warming is a predicted acceleration of sea level rise. Water levels in San Francisco Bay could rise by 1.4 meters by the end of this century and flood over 330 square miles of low-lying shoreline property and $60 billion of property. The San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission has formulated a broad outline of a comprehensive strategy for addressing climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to sea level rise in the Bay Area region.

The City of Lewes Hazard Mitigation and Climate Adaptation Action Plan

From the Executive Summary:

Lewes, Delaware, with its strong history of hazard mitigation planning and preparedness is perfectly poised to take advantage of an increasing understanding of climate change impacts. It is already known that temperatures are rising, glaciers are retreating, snowpack is disappearing, spring is arriving earlier, and seas are rising. These changes will exacerbate hazards that are known to threaten Lewes today. While these changes cannot be prevented, the effects of these events are dependent upon the choices and actions that Lewes makes today.

Given the increasing future threats that Lewes faces, the overall goal of the Hazard Mitigation and Climate Adaptation pilot project has been to further the City’s hazard mitigation work by incorporating climate adaptation. The project has developed this unified plan that aims to improve community sustainability and resilience. Local officials and residents have been engaged through four workshops to determine the City’s greatest existing and future vulnerabilities and to chart a course of action to reduce these vulnerabilities.

The subsequent sections provide further details on the project, the methods used and the outcomes of the effort. Section 1 focuses on providing a context for this effort and details the methods used. Section 2 provides a case for engaging in both hazard mitigation and climate adaptation. Section 3 details the natural hazards assessed. Section 4 is focused on the climate change knowledge and impacts to natural hazards that were presented to workshop participants. Section 5 outlines the vulnerability self‐assessments that were conducted during the workshops. These assessments resulted in the identification of two key vulnerabilities. The first is Lewes’ water system and the combined threats of saltwater intrusion into the aquifer and destruction of water conveyance systems that it faces from sea level rise. The second vulnerability is the destructive impacts on homes and City infrastructure from increased flooding.

Based upon these two key vulnerabilities, Section 6 describes the action selection process. Through this process, the following six actions were identified as recommendations that the City begin implementing. Finally, Section 7 provides implementation guidance for these identified actions.

  • Incorporate climate change concerns into the comprehensive plan and into future reviews of the building and zoning codes. Recommended actions and implementation guidance are included on page 53.
  • Improve outreach and education particularly focused on successful behavior changes related to home building and retrofits. Recommended actions and implementation guidance are included on page 59.
  • Ensure that aquifer information is integrated into all planning efforts. Recommended actions and implementation guidance are included on page 63.
  • Use elevation data to determine road levels and evacuation risk. Recommended actions and implementation guidance are included on page 65.
  • Evaluate the City and the Board of Public Works (BPW) infrastructure's flood vulnerability from direct flood impacts as well as from indirect flood impacts to access routes. Recommended actions and implementation guidance are included on page 67.
  • Improve the City’s level of participation in the community rating system (CRS). Recommended actions and implementation guidance are included on page 69.

Adapting to Climate Change: An Introduction for Public Sector Policy Makers, Resource Managers, and Practioners

The global climate is changing with far reaching implications for Scotland. Greenhouse gases already emitted into the atmosphere mean that some climate change is unavoidable regardless of future emissions. Adapting to climate change presents a significant challenge for organisations across Scotland’s public sector which must consider the risks and opportunities presented.

Public sector organisations have an essential role to play in helping Scotland prepare for, and respond to changes in climate. They are strongly encouraged to take an early and planned approach to climate change adaptation. This document provides public sector policy makers,resource managers and practitioners with an introduction to climate change adaptation. It includes:

Climate information: Key facts and figures about the changes in climate that have been observed in the recent past and the changes that are projected for this century.

Justifying action: Information on the need to prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change.

Planned and flexible approaches to adaptation: The benefits of using existing plans and policies to develop a flexible approach to adaptation and information about developing a phased approach to adaptation planning.

Service and infrastructure impacts: Some of the ways that public sector services and infrastructure are likely to be affected by changes in climate.

Policy context: An overview of the climate change adaptation legislative and policy drivers. Information and support: The resources that are available to help public sector organisations adapt to changes in climate.

See the accompying workbook as well. This workbook provides a set of practical worksheets that organisations can use to better understand how they may be impacted by changes in climate and prepare a planned response.