C40 City Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Guidance: Guidance for Climate Action Planning Teams

Inés Lockhart and Jeremy Doyle
Posted on: 1/16/2024 - Updated on: 1/16/2024

Posted by




This guidance has been developed to help cities develop and implement effective monitoring, evaluation and reporting (MER) of their climate action plans.

To achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement we need to act faster and with more urgency than ever before. C40 cities make up a quarter of the world’s economy and represent 700 million people. Achieving a climate-safe future is only possible if cities act now and in collaboration with other levels of government, businesses, civil society and people. C40 cities have committed to the most ambitious goals of the Paris Agreement, planning and delivering ambitious roadmaps towards a carbon neutral, resilient and inclusive climate future. In order to measure success and adjust priorities over time, cities are looking to develop a well-structured system to monitor, evaluate and report progress. This guidance sets out to support these processes as cities develop and adjust their climate action planning.

The Climate Action Plan (CAP) is a strategic document - or set of documents – showing how a city will deliver on its commitment. A climate action planning monitoring, evaluation and reporting (MER) system then enables cities to track and review the intended results and real progress. This is essential in order to monitor the effects of climate actions across a diverse range of stakeholders and progress may face multiple risks or challenges. The ability to demonstrate clear progress and quantify the benefits of climate action can also lead to greater access to national and international climate funding and secure more support from key stakeholder groups in the city.

To be aligned with the ‘objectives of the Paris Agreement’, a city Climate Action Plan should be accompanied by an effective MER system - but there is no prescriptive, one-size fits all solution. Rather, cities will build on existing structures, including data collection and data management tools. Climate action planning is an iterative process. 

This guide aims to support a more effective and harmonised approach. It will help to meet the needs of different stakeholders, including reporting to different audiences, particularly decision makers. This guidance is structured around six main steps for developing and using a Climate Action Planning MER system.


Lockhart, I. and Doyle, J. (2020). C40 City Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Guidance: Guidance for Climate Action Planning Teams. C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Affiliated Organizations


C40 is a global network of nearly 100 mayors of the world’s leading cities that are united in action to confront the climate crisis.

Mayors of C40 cities are committed to using an inclusive, science-based and collaborative approach to cut their fair share of emissions in half by 2030, help the world limit global heating to 1.5°C, and build healthy, equitable and resilient communities. C40 supports mayors to do this by:

Related Resources