Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II: Chapter 28 - Reducing Risks Through Adaptation Actions

Created: 10/27/2020 -


Across the United States, many regions and sectors are already experiencing the direct effects of climate change. For these communities, climate impacts—from extreme storms made worse by sea-level rise to longer-lasting and more extreme heatwaves, to increased numbers of wildfires and floods—are an immediate threat, not a far-off possibility. Because these impacts are expected to increase over time, communities throughout the United States face the challenge not only of reducing greenhouse gas emissions but also of adapting to current and future climate change to help mitigate climate risks. This Chapter details risk management strategies through climate change adaptation.  

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The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP began as a presidential initiative in 1989 and was mandated by Congress in the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (P.L.


Adaptation Phase
National / Federal
Sector Addressed
Conservation / Restoration
Disaster Risk Management
Land Use Planning
Type of Adaptation Action/Strategy
Conduct vulnerability assessments and studies
Governance and Policy
Develop / implement adaptation plans
Develop / implement adaptive management strategies
Target Climate Changes and Impacts
Culture / communities
Infrastructure damage
Public health risks
Public safety threats
Storms or extreme weather events
United States