How Developing Countries are Addressing Hazards, Focusing on Relevant Lessons Learned and Good Practices

UNFCCC Adaptation Committee
Posted on: 1/22/2024 - Updated on: 4/15/2024

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The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA) requested the secretariat, under the guidance of the Adaptation Committee (AC) and the Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG), and in collaboration with relevant stakeholders, to prepare synthesis reports every two years starting in 2020. The synthesis reports, covering specific adaptation themes, are focused on relevant lessons learned and good practices in developing country Parties in the context of the recognition of their adaptation efforts. The CMA also recalled that the global stocktake will review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation and acknowledged that adaptation efforts contribute to this objective.

The AC, at its sixteenth meeting, agreed on the theme of “How developing countries are addressing hazards, focusing on relevant lessons learned and good practices” (September 2019) for its first synthesis in the context of the recognition of adaptation efforts of developing countries. It requested the secretariat to develop an initial draft for consideration by the seventeenth meeting of the Adaptation Committee (March 2020).

Mentions of adaptation efforts in IPCC reports have been used to provide this paper with basic conceptual grounding of what adaptation efforts entail. The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation stated that many climate change adaptation efforts aim to address the implications of potential changes in the frequency, intensity, and duration of weather and climate events that affect the risk of extreme impacts on human society. That risk is determined not only by climate and weather events (the hazards) but also by the exposure and vulnerability to these hazards. Therefore, effective adaptation and disaster risk management strategies and practices also depend on a rigorous understanding of the dimensions of exposure and vulnerability, as well as a proper assessment of changes in those dimensions. The IPCC fifth assessment report also highlighted that adaptation responses are underpinned by common enabling factors, including effective institutions and governance, innovation and investments in environmentally sound technologies and infrastructure, and sustainable livelihoods. Hence, this report seeks to explore and address some good practices of adaptation efforts of developing countries in addressing climate hazards that lead to reducing exposure and vulnerability to climate hazards, strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity as well as establishing an enabling environment for adaptation.

This report considers efforts, within and taken by developing countries, based on a review of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), National Communications, Adaptation communications, and other relevant documents, including reports of the Technical Examination Process on Adaptation (TEP-A), the AC, the LEG, the Executive Committee (ExCom) of the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) for loss and damage, and reports prepared under the Nairobi Work Programme. 137 NDCs of developing countries, 154 national communications, 20 NAPs, and two adaptation communications submitted to the UNFCCC, have been reviewed (see Figure 2 for the key climate hazards addressed by developing countries). In addition, some examples were derived from other sources to illustrate in more detail the good practices used by developing countries.


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2021. How developing countries are addressing hazards, focusing on relevant lessons learned and good practices. Synthesis report by the Adaptation Committee in the context of the recognition of adaptation efforts of developing countries.

Affiliated Organizations

UNFCCC stands for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Convention has near universal membership (198 Parties) and is the parent treaty of the 2015 Paris Agreement. The main aim of the Paris Agreement is to keep the global average temperature rise this century as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The UNFCCC is also the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

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