Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe

European Environment Agency
Created: 12/06/2005 -


From the Executive Summary:

Significant changes in climate and their impacts are already visible globally, and are expected to become more pronounced. In Europe, mountain regions, coastal zones, wetlands and the Mediterranean region are particularly vulnerable. Although there are some positive effects, many impacts are adverse. Existing adaptive measures are concentrated in flood defence, so there is considerable scope for adaptation planning and implementation in other areas, such as public health, water resources and management of ecosystems.

There are a number of challenges which should be addressed to make progress on climate change adaptation. These include:

  • improving climate models and scenarios at detailed regional level, especially for extreme weather events, to reduce the high level of uncertainty;
  • advancing understanding on 'good practice' in adaptation measures through exchange and information sharing on feasibility, costs and benefits;
  • involving the public and private sector, and the general public at both local and national level;
  • enhancing coordination and collaboration both within and between countries to ensure the coherence of adaptation measures with other policy objectives, and the allocation of appropriate resources.

Published On


Sector Addressed
Disaster Risk Management
Type of Adaptation Action/Strategy
Natural Resource Management / Conservation
Incorporate future conditions into natural resources planning and policies
Capacity Building
Conduct vulnerability assessments and studies
Create stakeholder engagement processes to develop and implement adaptation strategies
Governance and Policy
Create new or enhance existing policies or regulations
Target Climate Changes and Impacts
Fishery harvest
Public health risks
Range shifts
Sea level rise
Species of concern
Storms or extreme weather events
Water quality
Water supply
Water temperature